Plants and other organisms are classified based on their similarities, and this is how scientists, gardeners and other professionals manage and control propagation. Rose order classification is detailed and fascinating, with different levels, names and subcategories. An understanding of its classification can help you to choose the best garden roses (Rosa, USDA plant hardiness zones 3 through 11).
Three Main Rose Groups
Roses are beloved flowers that come in so many different colors, sizes and shapes. The American Rose Society is one of the best resources for rose order classification and for help with growing roses. It lists three main rose groups: species roses, old garden roses and modern roses. Species roses are also called wild roses. They range from 2 feet to 20 feet and have four to eight single petals. Old garden roses are classes that existed before the year 1867, and modern roses came into existence after that year.
Modern roses came into the picture when the first hybrid rose, La France (Rosa 'La France,' USDA plant hardiness zones 6 to 11), was introduced. In addition to hybrid tea roses, other classes of modern roses include grandiflora, floribunda, polyantha, miniature, miniflora and shrub. Some are easier to grow than others, and you can check their rankings to find more information.
Classification of Roses From Kingdom to Species
The botany name of the rose is Rosa L. Roses are in the Plantae kingdom, and just like it sounds, it includes plants. The subkingdom is Viridiplantae, or green plants. The next step down, infrakingdom, is Streptophyta, or land plants, followed by the superdivision, Embryophyte, which is green land plants.
Roses then fall into the Tracheophyta division, which includes vascular plants. The rose subdivision Spermatophytina includes seed plants, spermatophytes and phanérogames. Moving down to the species, roses are in the Magnoliopsida class, Rosanae superorder and Rosales order.
The word "division" is used for classifying plants, protists and fungi, while "phylum" is used for classifying animals. When studying roses, the term "phylum" is not really used. As a side note, the animal kingdom has 36 phyla, but the majority fall into nine of them: Anthropoda, Annelida, Aschelmeinthes, Chordata, Coelenterata, Echinodermata, Platyhelminthes and Porifera. This covers everything from primitive saltwater sponges to mammals.
The History of Roses
The roots of roses can be traced back to Central Asia, Europe and the Mediterranean. Humans probably began cultivating roses around 5,000 years ago in Asia. The flowers were very popular during the Han dynasty and in Egypt. Centuries later, Roman emperors liked to bathe in rose water, and they used the petals as confetti.
When hybrid tea roses were born in the 1800s, rose breeding really took off. In fact, hybrid tea roses soon became the most popular kind of rose. Now, the American Rose Society has more than 40 kinds of roses listed in its classification system. There are still rose growers out there who are trying to create the ideal rose, but for now, there are many highly recommended varieties from which to choose.