Plants have different ways of multiplying. Some have rhizomes, or horizontal stems that grow underground and from which roots and new shoots sprout. Other vegetation, including ferns, makes young plants from spores. There are also plants that grow from bulbs and those that germinate from seeds, which are pods that hold an embryo. According to the Ohio State University Extension Office, annual and biennial vegetables, flowers and grasses easily reproduce from seeds.
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Calendula is an annual herb that grows to over 1 foot tall. A native to the Mediterranean region, this flowering plant likes full sun and loamy soil. If you read the label of many natural skin ointments and creams, you'll notice that calendula is often an ingredient used for its antiviral and wound-healing properties. The orange and yellow calendula flowers attract beneficial insects, like pollinating bees. To grow it, sow the seeds in their permanent location or start them indoors. They germinate in one to two weeks.
The dianthus flower looks like a miniature carnation and usually blooms from spring through early summer. Depending on the variety—there are over 300 species in this family—you may see blooms in various shades of pink, red, yellow and orange. You can sow the seeds directly in the garden or start them indoors. Dianthus also makes a good container plant.
Native to the southwestern United States and Mexico, according to the University of Florida Extension Office, cosmos are easy to start from seed. You can either sow them in trays indoors or plant the seeds in their permanent location outdoors. These flowering plants self-sow and attract birds to your garden.
Even though the crabapple is the only apple native to the United States, 2,500 different varieties of this fruit now grow in the country. The propagation of commercial apple trees is through grafting or budding, the only ways of growing seedlings that are true replicas of the parent plant. However, if you bury an apple seed in the ground, it will also germinate and develop to become a tree. The apple blossom is Michigan's state flower.
The black cherry tree is a reddish-brown hardwood commonly used in furniture making. While this tree is native to the eastern United States, you also find it growing in the semi-arid and sub-tropical regions of the country. Its flowers bloom from April through June and have no fragrance. Writing for the University of Idaho College of Natural Resources, Yvonne C. Barkley says that getting a black cherry seed from an established orchard is the key to growing a tree that won't disappoint.
Bermuda grass arrived in the United States via southeast Africa, where it's a native warm-season pasture. This grass has two methods of reproduction: once established in your yard, it will spread through its underground rhizomes. But gardeners also plant Bermuda grass seeds to start a new lawn or add more density to existing grass. Bermuda has a fine texture, tolerates heat well and turns brown in cold conditions.
Some fescue are ornamental grasses that grow in clumps and tolerate both dry and frosty conditions. Since they don't spread through underground rhizomes, to grow a dense lawn, you need to sow the seeds near one another so there are no bald areas among the mature grass plants. Fescue clumps also tolerate division and replanting in the fall if you want to propagate the grass to other areas or fill any gaps.