Trees that maintain their leaves throughout the years are known as evergreen trees. Deciduous trees, on the other hand, have specific seasons where their foliage is lost. There are a variety of different evergreen tree varieties, including coniferous trees such as pine, fir and spruce and other evergreen varieties like cedar. These trees only shed the oldest leaves as part of their life cycle and never completely lose their foliage.
Pine trees come from a single genus, Pinus. Most pine trees are evergreen and exist in a widespread distribution across the northern hemisphere's most temperate areas. Pines are most popular as a source for timber as well as pulpwood. Most pine trees have needle-like leaves that are arranged helically. Examples of evergreen pine trees include Austrian pine, Loblolly pine, Ponderosa pine, Scotch pine, Eastern White pine, Virginia pine and White pine.
The Fraser fir is an example of an evergreen fir tree. This is a classic fir, with needles that are short and dark and undersides that are silver. The Fraser fir tree is a popular option for Christmas and holiday trees because it is compact and dense. It can grow to between 40 and 70 feet in height and diameter or between one and two feet. In North Carolina, it is grown extensively for Christmas tree use.
Examples of spruce trees that are evergreen include the Black Hills spruce, Colorado Blue spruce and the Norway spruce. Colorado blue spruces have pyramid-shaped bodies with foliage in a steel blue. Blue spruces can reach as high as six feet in only eight years of growth, and they are naturally drought tolerant. Black Hills spruce trees have dark green foliage and a conical shape. This is a cold-adapted evergreen tree with dense foliage and stout needles. Norway spruce trees are fast-growing trees that can reach 150 feet or taller. They feature dense and dark green needles that are short, never reaching longer than one inch.
Cedar trees are members of the pine family, as they are coniferous and bear needle-like leaves. What differentiates cedar from other pine varieties in that they have four-angled leaves and branches that are short-sided. Cedar trees are red in color and the wood is durable and fragrant, so it is sourced for cabinetry and construction purposes. Examples of cedar trees that are evergreen include the American Arborvitae, Eastern Red cedar and the Red cedar.