The growth and development of fruit trees is greatly influenced by the geographic location. The production of fruit in New Mexico is determined by the December late freezes. The sooner the fruit tree blooms, the greater the chances that the flowers will be killed by the winter frosts. Though some varieties are referred to as winter hardy, this indicates the general ability of the tree to bear low temperatures. New Mexico lies in USDA Hardiness Zones 4 to 8 depending upon area. The northern regions of the state are less likely to support the growth of early flowering fruit trees.
Apples are among the fruits that grow well in New Mexico regardless of region. All apple varieties can be grown in the state, and can be chosen according to personal choice in taste. Apple trees are not self-fertile, however. This means that another apple variety also needs to be present in order to pollinate the tree. Though some varieties are self-fertile, they still produce better fruit with a pollinator. The high-end varieties such as Delicious and McIntosh need a pollinator. Apple blossoms are susceptible to winter freezes and this can be minimized by planting trees closer to the house walls. Apple trees will start to bear fruit as soon as they start to flower. Some good apple varieties for New Mexico include Jonathan, Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Rome and Winesap.
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Peaches do well in all regions of New Mexico but are relatively short-lived, with an average life of about 10 years. Peach trees are self-fertile and do not need another tree for pollination except for certain exceptions such as J.H. Hale. The flowering time for peach trees is 2 weeks before apple trees. The late blooming peach varieties include red haven, Dixie red and Raritan rose. Some other good varieties for New Mexico include Redskin, Belle of Georgia, Golden Monarch, Candor and Cresthaven.
Pears are among the most common fruit planted in New Mexico and Bartlett is the most popular variety. Other varieties such as Red Bartlett and Red D'Anjou are also gaining popularity in the state. Pears are a favorite fruit for eating fresh and canning. Like apple trees, pear trees are also not self-fertile and hence need another variety for pollination. Certain exceptions (like Kieffer, Star Crimson and Dutchess) are able to produce good fruit without any pollinators. For the trees that are not self-fertile, the recommended pollinators include Star King Delicious, and Beurre Bosc.