An electrical oven in the U.S. is a heavy-duty electrical device that runs on 220 volts of AC power. Modern stoves require a dedicated 220-volt electrical circuit with four wires that run from the electrical panel to the 220-volt outlet. The circuit has two 110-volt wires, a neutral wire and a grounding wire. Wiring a 220-volt electrical line for an oven is not a complicated job, but it is one that requires training, experience and knowledge of existing electrical codes.
Things You'll Need
220-volt circuit breaker
Electrical outlet box (surface-mount)
Four-wire electrical cable
Shut down power to your home by locating the main circuit breaker inside the electrical panel and flipping the main circuit breaker switch to its "Off" position. The main circuit breaker has the highest ampere rating inside the panel. Turn on appliances and lights inside your home to confirm that there is no more power in the circuits.
Unscrew the cover of the electrical panel to access the panel board wiring. Plug a 220-volt circuit breaker into an empty slot on the panel board.
Locate the spot where you wish to mount the 220-volt electrical outlet. Screw the surface-mount outlet box upright onto the wall surface, using screws supplied with the outlet.
Climb to the crawl space above your ceiling or to the attic. Locate the wall directly above the 220-volt outlet and drill a hole along the outer edge of the wall. The hole must be large enough to allow the electrical cable to slip through.
Slip the end of an electrical cable through the hole and drop the cable down to knockout on top of the 220-volt outlet box. Pull the cable from inside the box by about 6 inches. Fasten the cable neatly onto the wall using wiremold with self-adhesive backing. Remove 2 inches of cable sheathing from the tip of the cable, using diagonal pliers. Strip off 1/2 inch of insulation from the tip of each exposed wire, using a wire stripper.
Hook the tip of each exposed wire onto each terminal screw on the 220-volt, four-wire receptacle with needle-nose pliers according to the following configuration: green or bare wire to the green (ground) terminal screw, white wire to the silver (neutral ) terminal screw and each black or red power wire onto each of the two brass terminal screws (in any order). Wires in the U.S. are required by electric codes to be color-coded and outlets have color-coded terminal screws or markings to indicate polarity.
Tighten each terminal screw securely with a slotted screwdriver and pull on each wire to make sure there are no loose connections. Bend the wires in a zigzag manner or coil them, then tuck the wires into the outlet box. Screw the receptacle onto the outlet box.
Run the electric cable across the ceiling to a spot directly above the electrical panel. Use cable staples every 2 feet to attach the cable onto surfaces. Slip the cable through an opening or conduit leading to the panel and drop the cable to a knockout on top of the panel. Pull the cable from inside the panel by about 2 feet, then cut the cable with diagonal pliers. Remove the entire cable sheathing from the knockout to the tip of the cable to expose the inner wires.
Route each wire neatly to its corresponding terminal in the following order: green or bare wire to a terminal screw on the ground bar, white wire to a terminal screw on the neutral buss bar and black or red wires to the two terminal screws at the end of the 220-volt circuit breaker. Cut any excess wires and strip off 1/2 inch from the tip of each wire, using a wire stripper.
Plug each wire to its corresponding terminal screw and tighten each wire securely. Tug on each wire to make sure there are no loose connections. Replace the panel cover and turn on the 220-volt circuit breaker. Flip the main circuit breaker to its "On" position and plug a stove into the dedicated 220-volt receptacle.
The electrical outlet that you will install should match the prongs on the electrical stove power cord.
All components of the 220-volt circuit must have the same ampere rating and must comply with the electrical rating required by the stove manufacturer. Wiring a 220-volt circuit is dangerous and should be done by a qualified electrician. Check with your local authorities regarding the requirements for installing a 220-volt circuit before performing this project. Various homes present various wiring scenarios that must conform to various applicable electrical codes. Always consult an electrician when wiring a 220-volt circuit.