The maple tree comes in a variety of species, many of which are familiar in the American landscape. With a few exceptions, the majority of the maple habitat lie in the Northeast to Midwest portion of the country.
Two species, the Rocky Mountain maple, or Acer glabrum, and the bigtooth maple, or Acer grandidentatum, live out west. The Rocky Mountain maple is mostly in Utah and Arizona while the other is throughout many western and mountain states.
The natural habitats for both of these varieties of maple come close to Phoenix, but does not extend to the area.
There is nothing about the Phoenix area that would deter many species of maple trees from growing there. With proper watering during drought season a backyard maple should thrive from the abundance of sunshine.