How Deep Well Pumps Work

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Water Pressure

The deep well pump does not run twenty-four hours a day--a switch turns the pump off after water pressure reaches as high as sixty pressure per square inch (psi). Fixtures (such as shower facets and toilets) require constant water pressure in order to operate. To achieve constant water pressure, deep well pump transfers water to a storage tank. The air bladder in the storage tank compresses with the flow of water from the pump. In this way, water psi is built up enough to travel through the home's plumbing to reach the shower facets, toilets, and other fixtures. The psi will drop with usage of the toilet and other household fixtures. When water pressure reaches the lowest allowable psi (roughly 20 psi), the pump turns on again. Pressure gauges are located on the storage tank not far from the pump's switch. The water well pump must have a capacity to process the same number of gallons (per minute) as the quantity of water fixtures in the residence. The distance between the residence and the water well will determine how hard the pump has to work (up hill is more wearing on the pump). Most water pumps, however, will last several years even when the pump has to work harder.

Prevention of Over Pumping

A deep well pump has a component called a tailpipe, which is installed about 25 to 35 feet into the well. The tailpipe is mated with the intake of the jet housing. As water decreases, the flow of water from the pump will slow down until the level of water is less than 25 (never completely draining the well). The closer the jet is to the water level, the better the flow of water through the pump.

Submersed Pumps

Submersed deep well pumps are cylindrical units nested in the well casing. A sealed pump motor is wired to a power supply on the ground level. An array of stacked impellers moves water up into the plumbing system (usually leading to the basement plumbing). The well pipe is connected to a pit-less adapter via a horizontally flowing pipe. The adapter allows access to the pump and well through the peak of the well casing. As well, the adapter moves water from the pump to the plumbing pipes. The submersed deep well pump pushes water up the well, rather than pulling water up.

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