Types of Coenzymes


Coenzymes are organic molecules that support the ability of enzymes to use vitamins and minerals. Unlike regular enzymes, coenzymes are not proteins. Many types of coenzymes incorporate vitamins into their chemistry. Some, like Q10, may help reduce side effects of some cholesterol-lowering drugs. While practical, the benefits of coenzymes as health supplements are not well-established. There are 18 known coenzymes, broadly classified in two groups.

Vitamin-Based Coenzymes

  • Most coenzymes originate as vitamins that the body absorbs through food before converting them to do their jobs. Vitamins enable the body’s cells to perform chemical reactions; process nutrients, carbohydrates and fats; and regulate the nervous system.

    Coenzymes derived from vitamins include ascorbic acid (from vitamin C), coenzyme A (from pantothenic acid or B5), coenzyme F420 (from riboflavin), menaquinone (from vitamin K), NAD+ and NADP+ (from niacin) and tetrahydrofolic acid (from folic acid or B9).

Nonvitamin Coenzymes

  • Coenzymes not derived from vitamins can still transfer different chemicals between enzymes. These include adenosine triphosphate (which transfer phosphates); S-Adenosyl methionine, Tetrahydromethanopterin and and coenzyme M (which transfer methyls); 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (which transfer sulphates); glutathione, coenzyme Q and coenzyme B (which transfer electrons); tetrahydrobiopterin (which transfer oxygen and electrons); cytidine triphosphate (which transfer lipid head groups and diacylglycerols); nucleotide sugars (which transfer monosaccharides); Methanofuran (which transfer formyls).

    Methanogens distribute Coenzyme M, coenzyme B, methanofuran and tetrahydromethanopterin through the body; bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes distribute the other coenzymes.

Q10 Supplement

  • Organizations such as the Mayo Clinic and the National Cancer Institute question the proven benefits of coenzyme Q10 supplements. Statins, which treat high cholesterol, sometimes have detrimental side effects including muscle pain, liver damage, digestive problems, rashes and memory loss. Q10 has been used to alleviate these problems but the effectiveness is controversial.

    As a dietary supplement, Q10 is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and no large studies have been performed to check how well it helps statin users, if at all. While no liver problems have been reported from Q10, an Italian study by E. Baggio, R. Gandini, and A.C. Plancher (et al) reported rashes, nausea and upper abdominal pain from a small number of patients.

Related Searches


  • Photo Credit vitamin e image by Margaret M Stewart from Fotolia.com
Promoted By Zergnet


You May Also Like

  • Coenzyme Q-10 Benefits

    Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) is a naturally occurring substance in the human body. It is essential in the production of energy. CoQ-10 levels...

  • Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency Symptoms

    Coenzyme Q10 is necessary for energy production, and essential for proper cell functioning. It is made in your body, and if you...

  • Sources of Coenzymes

    The human body survives and thrives through the actions of proteins called enzymes, which catalyze reactions necessary for life to exist. Most...

  • Side Effects of Coenzyme Q10

    Coenzyme Q10 is produced in the body. It is used in cell function. Some diseases and conditions lower the amount produced as...

  • Foods That Contain Coenzyme Q10

    When it comes to nutrients, you may not have heard much about CoQ10, but it's found in nearly all of your cells....

  • How to Best Absorb Coenzyme Q10

    Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, is a natural, fat-soluble antioxidant produced in the body. It has been shown to be helpful...

  • What Are the Dangers of Coenzyme Q10?

    Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone for its essential and wide-ranging presence in the body, supports energy production, boosts the immune system...

Related Searches

Check It Out

This Is the Beauty Routine of a Yelp Sales Manager

Is DIY in your DNA? Become part of our maker community.
Submit Your Work!