No two employees are created equal. Each one brings a unique set of values and attitudes to the workplace every day, and it's because of this that the influence of organizational culture affects each employee differently. According to researchers Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov, organizational culture generally creates five personality types among employees.
Alienation with Neuroticism
Employees who feel alienated and neurotic perceive all work practices as negative. They're considered misers who question the professionalism of their employer, perceive management as aloof, distrust colleagues, view the organization as disorderly, feel hostile about their work environment, and perceive less integration between the overall organization and its workers. Alienation tends to be stronger among employees who are younger and less educated in nonmanagerial roles.
Workaholism with Extraversion
Workaholics feel a strong commitment to their work and tend to show it by always keeping busy. They may also boast about it. They aren't really concerned about the need for a supportive work environment. Workaholism tends to crop up most among male employees who are young, more educated and in managerial positions.
Ambition with Openness to Experience
Organizational culture may spark ambition, or the personal need to excel and achieve, among all employees at varying levels. It's typically demonstrated by an employee's desire to contribute to the organization as well as the desire for constant learning and advancement.
Hofstede, Hofstede and Minkov use the term "machismo" to describe the drive employees generally feel to take the lead while remaining agreeable to the needs of others. This aspect varies by employee.
Orderliness with Conscientiousness
How each employee perceives orderliness varies. Employees who are orderly by nature tend to view the workplace as orderly regardless of the chaos that may be rampant. They also are more conscientious of others' needs than those employees who don't really care for order.
- "Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival"; Geert Hofstede, et al.; 2010
- "Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd Edition"; Edgar Schein; 2004
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