Transformational leaders achieve change by motivating followers to set aside individual or short-term interests to work together toward a group goal. Specifically, transformational leaders use one or a combination of individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation and idealized influence, according to Roger Gill, author of "Theory and Practice of Leadership." Although the style sounds appealing, organizations looking to implement a transformational approach should first weigh its pros and cons.
Assumes Follower Motivation
Transformational leadership does not incorporate situational dynamics and assumes that followers want to work together toward a larger goal. Transformational approaches are not as effective in situations where followers do not have the skills or experience necessary to complete a task or are not motivated to perform without an immediate and tangible reward.
The results of transformational leadership take time. Transformational leaders must invest time and energy building trust and convincing followers to believe in a shared vision. Organizations hoping to achieve instant results by installing a transformational leader are likely to be frustrated and disappointed.
Depends on the Individual
Much of the power of the transformational style rests with the values and personality of the leader. Other theories, such as contingency or situational, explain that leaders can align their style to the needs of the group to improve effectiveness. Transformational leadership might be out of reach for those who lack inspirational communication skills and charisma even if they possess the skills and experience necessary to be in charge. Similarly, the transformational leadership theory assumes one leader, which ignores the fact that many organizations and campaigns employ a framework of leaders to motivate a group to reach a goal.
Lacks Application Details
Transformational leadership theory explains the "what" but lacks details about the "how." Little information is given about how a leader should articulate and communicate her vision and empower followers. In addition, explanations of strategy and mission are left out of the theory, according to Gill.
Potential for Abuse
Transformational leadership is powerful but not always used morally. Although examples such as Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King Jr. are often associated with the term transformational leadership, not all who inspire or empower fit the definition. Adolf Hitler and Osama bin Laden are examples of pseudo-transformational leaders. True transformational leadership includes ethics, character, values and a commitment to the common good.