Insert the 741 op-amp IC into the prototype breadboard, which is an electronic circuit. Notice that the breadboard has channels spaced to accommodate integrated circuits, so one set of legs fit on either side of the channel. Make sure to orient the 74, so the notch or dimple faces to the left. Pin 1 of the 741 will be toward you on its lower left.
If you're an electronics student or hobbyist, who has done some basic work with op-amps, you're ready to tackle a simple oscillator. The oscillator uses the op-amp's gain and feedback to produce fairly pure sine waves at a fixed frequency. Engineers call this a Wien-bridge oscillator, and while more complex designs have better stability, the Wien-bridge makes the most of its few parts. Once you have the components in front of you on a workbench, you can easily put it together in under an hour.
- 741 op-amp integrated circuit (IC), dual in-line package
- Two, 1K ohm resistors
- 2.2K ohm resistor
- Two, 1 microfarad 50V capacitor
- Two, .1 microfarad 50V capacitor
- Assorted lengths of #22 insulated jumper wire
- 12 volt DC bipolar power supply
- Prototype breadboard
Insert one lead of a 1K resistor into the breadboard, so it connects to pin 3 of the 741. Insert its other lead into a free column on the breadboard. Insert one lead of a .1 microfarad capacitor connecting it to pin 3. Insert its other lead into the same column you used for the resistor, putting the resistor and capacitor in parallel. Insert one lead of another 1K resistor so it connects to pin 3, and connect its other lead into a new free column. Insert one lead of another .1 microfarad capacitor into this free column, and insert its other lead so it connects to pin 6 of the 741.
Insert one lead of the remaining 1K resistor, so it connects to pin 2 of the 741. Insert its remaining lead, so it connects to an unused breadboard column. Insert a jumper wire, so it connects this column to the first free column you used, which now connects the first 1K resistor and .1 microfarad capacitor. Insert one lead of the 2.2K ohm resistor, so it connects to pin 6 and connect the other lead to pin 2.
Connect all three lines--positive and negative ground--of the 12 volt DC power supply to the breadboard. Make sure each line goes to a separate free column on the breadboard. Insert a jumper wire, so it connects the power column for ground to the column you used to connect the first resistor and capacitor. Insert another jumper wire, so it connects the +12 supply column to the 741's pin 7. Insert another wire so it connect the --12 column to pin 4. Insert one lead of a 1 microfarad capacitor into the +12 supply column, and the other lead into the supply ground column. Insert one lead of the remaining 1 microfarad capacitor into the --12 supply column, connecting the remaining lead into the ground column.
Insert a jumper wire, so it connects to the 741's output pin 6 and leaves its other end dangling. Double-check all connections. Turn your oscilloscope on and clip its input probe to the free end of the wire connected to the 741's output. Clip the input probe's ground to the power supply ground. Set the oscilloscope sweep rate to about 10 milliseconds per division, and set its vertical scale to about .5 volts per division.
Turn the power supply on. The oscilloscope should display a nice sine wave.
- Photo Credit Electronic Parts II image by Lumley from Fotolia.com
How to Build a Simple Signal Generator
Signal generators are electronic circuits that produce continuous, oscillating signals. You can build a simple one with a 741 op-amp integrated circuit...
How to Build a Linear Amp
Building a linear amp can be a very simple job or a massive undertaking. The easiest way to get started is to...
How to Design a Linear Mixer Circuit With an Op Amp
For electronics hobbyists, designing a linear mixing circuit using an operational amplifier, or op amp, is a good introduction to this important...
Types of Quadrature Oscillator
A quadrature oscillator, used in various telecommunications circuits, produces pure sine wave signals at two outputs, one of which has a 90...
Troubleshooting an oscillator takes some time, patience and familiarity with the equipment, but comes down to looking for symptoms. The oscillator's behavior...
How to Make a Square Wave Oscillator
A square wave oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a repeating rectangular pulse wave that's "on" 50 percent of the time....
OP Amp As a Logic Inverter
Operational amplifiers, or op-amps, produce an output voltage that is a function of the difference between voltages at their input terminals. Analog...
How to Replace Behringer Op-Amps
An operational amplifier (op-amp) is an integral part of an amplifier circuit. It increases voltage across the circuit. Typical op-amps come in...
Colpitts Oscillator Tutorial
Comments. You May Also Like. Tutorial for an Op-Amp Oscillator. If you're an electronics student or hobbyist, who has done some basic...
How to Measure Op-Amp Signals with an Oscilloscope
An operational amplifier integrated circuit can be used as an LED driver, as a way to amplify AC signals, or as a...
How to Make a Sine Wave
A phase shift oscillator produces good-quality sine waves. A sine wave is a pure electronic signal having no abrupt transitions in its...
How to Use Operational Amplifiers As Buffer Amplifiers
Operational amplifiers, more commonly called "op-amps," are one of the most frequently used components found in electronic circuits today after the resistor...
About Linear Integrated Circuits
Linear integrated circuits are electronic building blocks. Each one packs signal processing and generating capability onto a single silicon chip. They make...
Homemade Frequency Generator
One of the easiest frequency generator circuits you can build is a relaxation oscillator. Also called an astable multivibrator, the circuit charges...
Use of a Quadrature Oscillator
A quadrature oscillator is a sine wave generator with two outputs, one shifted exactly 90 degrees from the other. The phase-locked sine-cosine...
Frequency Generator Projects
Frequency Generator Projects. Frequency generator projects can be simple enough for a middle school science fair project or complicated enough for a...
Voltage Controlled Oscillator Tutorial
A music synthesizer's voltage-controlled oscillator, or VCO, lets you produce pitched tones for melodies and a variety of noises and effects. Its...
How to Calculate Resistance in Op-Amps
Operational amplifiers -- or op-amps for short -- are integrated electronic circuits that are used as the active component in amplifiers, voltage...