The marginal benefit of any good or service is the additional satisfaction, or utility, a consumer receives from the consumption of one additional unit of a good or service. Marginal benefit is maximized at the highest price the consumer is willing to pay for that one additional unit. In most cases, marginal benefit declines as further consumption increases, under the Law of Diminishing Returns.
An Example of Marginal Benefit
Marginal benefit is expressed in the exchange unit used to acquire one additional unit of a good or service. Typically, this is currency, which in the U.S. is the dollar. Suppose that after eating one hot dog, you want to have another. How much benefit will you get from eating one more hot dog? And, how much are you willing to pay for it, regardless of its actual price?
If you are willing to pay $5 for that one additional hot dog, then the additional benefit -- its marginal benefit -- is worth $5 to you. Because the measurement of benefit in this case is personal, the next person may have a different marginal benefit. If the actual price of the hot dog is $2 instead of $5, the difference between it and the price you are willing to pay for that one additional hot dog is a consumer surplus, which in this case is $3.
The same principle applies on the producer side as well. If you sell hot dogs for $2 regularly, but a shortage of hot dogs increases demand to the point that you can raise the price to $3, you are realizing a $1 marginal benefit. Of course, this could be offset by any increase in your marginal costs.
Calculate a Marginal Benefit
Calculating a marginal benefit is relatively simple. As discussed earlier, as a consumer, your marginal benefit is the amount you are willing to pay to consume one additional unit of a good or service, less the market price of one unit of that good or service.
As a manufacturer, marginal benefit is the amount over/under your market price at which you can sell one additional unit.