Process of Seeds Becoming a Plant

Plant a seed, provide sunlight, water and access to fresh air, and the seed develops into a plant. The process that takes place under the ground as the seed germinates and begins growing in two directions, producing both a root system and stem.

  1. Significance

    • After fertilization takes place, plants produce seed-containing fruits or nuts. Each seed contains all it needs to start life: a tiny embryo from which future plants will grow, cotyledons or stored food the plant uses until developing leaves and a seed coating to protect the seed interior.

    Plant Embryo

    • The embryo within a seed produces both the main root and main stem of the plant. To begin growth, embryos require water and warmth, with some plant seeds requiring subsoil darkness. Without these basic needs, an embryo remains dormant within the seed for extended periods and will not start growth until these conditions are available.


    • When seeds receive the right conditions promoting growth, the embryo passes into the growth stage known as germination and enlarges, bursting out of the seed coating. The first growth is downward, creating the plant's main root. Once the root establishes a hold in the soil, growth moves upwards and eventually emerges. Small leaves appear quickly on the stems to start making food for the plant, as the cotyledons are used by this time.

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