Based on writers D. Van Tiem, J. Moseley and J. Dessinger, in "Performance Improvement Interventions: Enhancing People, Processes, and Organizations through Performance Technology," a job analysis is the systematic process of collecting job information by identifying skills, duties, knowledge and accountability issues. The job analysis is usually a part of the performance analysis phase--which occurs before a gap analysis; cause analysis; selection and design of intervention (plan of action); implementation of Intervention; and evaluation--five phases of a human performance technology (HPT) model.
Identification of a Job Analysis
A job analysis includes detailed information about workers, the work that they must perform and their work environment. Such information or data are called "inputs" to a job analysis. "Outputs" are job descriptions, detailing the work to be performed and also job specifications, detailing skills and knowledge that workers are required to possess. These outputs are completed through two processes: a job or task analysis and a performance analysis.
Features of a Job Analysis
Job descriptions--one of the outputs of a job analysis that focuses on work--document tasks required for performing a job, including how tasks are done, and under what conditions they are done. According to Mondy, Noe, and Premeaux, there are seven types of data that may be collected for job descriptions, including:
1) Work activities--processes, procedures and responsibility levels 2) Worker activities--human behaviors, personal and physical energy to be used 3) Job resources--machines, tools, equipment and work aids 4) Job tangibles and intangibles--knowledge, management, products delivered, and services performed 5) Work performance--documented job standards, such as quantity, quality, time, cost or safety measures 6) Job context--setting, communication and culture 7) Special job requirements--previous education, training and practical experience
Job specifications, the second output of a job analysis, includes data that focuses on the worker including knowledge, skills, abilities, aptitudes, attitudes, experience and capacity. Data collection methods for job descriptions and job specifications-questionnaires, interviews, etc. are the same for a performance analysis.
A job analysis focuses on procedures such as how workers perform their job, and a performance analysis focuses on how difficult it may be for workers to perform their job mentally and physically.
In the fifth phase of performance technology, an evaluation is conducted for two reasons, including "to value or judge the results of performance or to trigger a decision regarding the performance, the worker, or the organization itself." D. Van Tiem, J. Moseley, and J. Dessinger list four types of evaluation methods: formative, summative, confirmative and meta.
Formative evaluations are used to evaluate and develop performance, during a performance analysis, cause analysis, and selection or design of interventions. Summative evaluations determine immediate competence of user and is used during implementation and change management. It focuses on the effectiveness of the human performance technology (HPT) process. Confirmative evaluations are conducted six to 12 months after implementation to determine long term effect on the competence of workers. Meta evaluations ensures accuracy and evaluates the processes used in the formative, summative and confirmative evaluations.
Confirmative evaluations should be conducted within six to 12 months after a job analysis program. This would ensure that employees remain competitive on their jobs. Meta evaluations should also be conducted to ensure that all evaluation processes were effective.
If a human performance technologist or performance improvement specialist does not work within an organization, this type of professional should be offered employment to assist with ensuring that the job analysis program and also evaluations of processes and people is designed and developed properly.