History of Graphic Design

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Graphic design dates back to newspaper design, which was mainly created through a Linotype machine, but the Macintosh computer in 1984 revolutionized the world of graphic design. Discover the origins of graphic design with information from the creative director of a design firm in this free video on graphic design.

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But the newspapers had to be done in the way that they needed to have it. Now many of the newspapers were not offset lithography which is what we know now as photography. And you could make a cold type, a photographic type and paste it down and past it in to place and then make a negative of that and make the plate from that. And that went along until probably the beginning of the MacIntosh nineteen eighty four where then all of that was being done on the computer. And at that time there were Linotype machines and you could actually use the computer and make your type. Let's see, in the interim there were typographers, or typositors and VGC made a machine where you could actually make headlines with photo type on a strip of photo paper. And then you could also, it had a special red lighting that read things so that you could actually curn the type. That was a big one because prior to that curning type, cold type, you had to slice it and fit it together. And like I said from Stanrest Paint company, we were, they were actually using hot type, printing it on paper, clay coat paper, and then you would take that and paste it down. So it was kind of an interim of it. There were still people who were using at that time, and that was nineteen seventy two or three, there were still people who were using Linotype machines. And a Linotype machine actually casts the individual letters in lines of type in lead. Melts lead, squirts it in there, don't see many of those anymore except in museums. But at that time there were still people doing that. And like I said, about in nineteen eighty four the MacIntosh began to change that. One of the things that people don't understand about the MacIntosh is that the pitch of the screen is seventy two dots per inch. Seventy two pixels per inch, that is also there are seventy two points in an inch, in typography. And that's why that machine is used for typography. Because it follows the rules of typography from Gutenberg or somewhere after Gutenberg, those same things. So you use points and picas and that sort of thing and the MacIntosh understands that. About that time you were able to put everything together. Now there was computerized type setting, the copy graphic people the VGC people, there was a lot of that. But generally it was not putting the whole layout together, everything in place and certainly not paginating the way we paginate now. Recently, what's happened is PDS and the PDF X1As and those kinds of files. So you're not actually sending a native file, a native InDesign file or the native CorkExpress file any longer. You're making a PDF, a high res PDF which the printer is then using in the way that they used the old art work with the things and making a negative of it, they make a negative of your PDF document. And that has all of the color information, all of the type information, all of the spacing and layout and everything you need to make that page look exactly the way the designer wanted it to look.

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