Hot tubs can provide hours of recreation and relaxation for your family and friends. In order to function properly and safely, hot tubs require careful installation. Most 240-V hot tubs now use four-wire electrical systems, but many tubs use three-wire systems, particularly older models. Note that installing a hot tub yourself is a challenging and potentially dangerous endeavor. Those who lack experience and electrical know-how should contract an electrician to perform the job.
Choose a suitable place to install your hot tub. You need a water source and a circuit breaker nearby. Choose a site that is stable, flat and level. Note that hot tubs can weigh over 5,000 pounds; if you plan to place the hot tub on a deck, make sure it can support the weight. Avoid placing the tub under non-evergreen trees, as foliage can clog the system.
Make sure your home meets the hot tub's electrical requirements. Check the panel ratings at the top of the main breaker. Most homes will meet the requirements indicated in the hot tub’s instruction manual. Purchase an outdoor ground fault circuit interrupter, or GFCI breaker, that is at least the same size as your main house service panel.
Make the initial electrical connections. Consult the owner's manual for instructions on how to properly install the GFCI panel to the house breaker panel. This requires a four-wire connection consisting of two hot wires, one neutral wire and one ground wire.
Transport and receive the hot tub. Clear the way of cars, fences, doghouses, pots and other obstacles to facilitate the move from the truck to the installation site. Hot tubs are extremely heavy; you’ll need at least five people to move it safely.
Assemble a high-quality 1-inch PVC pipe to run from the GFCI box to the 3-wire spa control box. Use two hot wires and one ground wire. Refer to the owner’s manual for the appropriate wire gauge. Use solid copper wires, as opposed to aluminum or copper-coated aluminum. Use wide PVC elbow joints for corner bends if necessary.
Insert wires into the PVC piping and fish them through carefully. Use a spring steel fish tape to route wires through the piping. Apply wire lubricant to facilitate this task. Make the necessary cuts and remove the fish tape. Connect the wires to the spa control pack.
Have your hot tub tested and inspected by a licensed electrician. Regardless of whether or not you perform the installation entirely yourself, this step is required by law and will help ensure the safety of those using the tub.
Fill the tub with water, turn on and enjoy.
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