Perennial are plants that live for more than two years. They bloom in the spring and summer, then die back during the winter. The following spring they grow back from the root-stock.
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There are several types of perennial plants including evergreens, deciduous, monocarpic, woody and herbaceous plants.
Examples of perennial plants include bearded iris, banana, goldenrod, mint, agave, maple tree, pine tree, apple tree, alfalfa and red clover.
Perennial plants have reproductive structures like bulbs, tubers, woody crowns and rhizomes. Plants utilize these structures to grow back each spring.
Perennial plants have long root systems that can help prevent soil erosion and absorb dissolved nitrogen before it reaches groundwater. The root system of perennials mitigates weed growth. This reduces the use of herbicides.
Perennials account for the large majority of plant life in forests and tundras. Most prairies and steppes are overgrown with perennials as well. Perennials are not common in sea water.