Soil Pollution Prevention

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Soil pollution is defined as the phenomenon of addition of various harmful chemicals, salts, microorganisms and other toxic substances into the top layer of the soil. Such addition often decreases the fertility of the soil by reducing its mineral content and thus adversely affects the ecological balance by affecting growth of plant and animal species. Soil pollution is one of the major problems faced worldwide presently; however various preventive steps are being taken to control and prevent it.

Reducing Usage of Chemicals

Various chemicals such as pesticides, insecticides and fungicides play important roles in plant growth; however the overuse of these chemicals is considered to be one of the prime factors leading to soil pollution. Reducing or even avoiding the use of such chemicals is one of the most elementary and important preventive measures. Manures and bio-fertilization can be used as alternatives to chemicals. Manures are often recommended by environmentalists and agriculturists because, as compared to pesticides, manures have minimal adverse effect on the environment. Bio-fertilization is a process in which certain microorganisms such as rhizobium are used to increase the soil fertility in place of chemicals.

Weed Control

Another common measure used to minimize soil pollution is controlling the growth of weeds. Weeds are unwanted plants that grow alongside the main plant and often result in the accumulation of various minerals into the soil layer. One of the common methods to control weed growth is covering the soil with layers of newspapers or plastic sheets just before cultivation.

Reforestation and Recycling Wastes

Other common methods of preventing soil pollution include reforestation and recycling of waste materials. De-forestation or the cutting down of trees often leads to erosion of the soil, which leads to soil pollution due to the loss of fertility of the soil. Thus, reforestation is an effective method of preventing soil pollution.

In addition,reducing the volume of refuse or waste in landfills by recycling materials such as plastics, papers and various other materials is another effective and common method of preventing the phenomenon of soil pollution.

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