What Are the Three Forms of Photosynthesis?

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The three forms of photosynthesis are very important to all plant life on Earth. Find out about the three forms of photosynthesis with help from an experienced chemistry professional in this free video clip.

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Video Transcript

Hi, I'm Dan Weisenberger. And this is what are the three forms of photosynthesis? With there being such of diverse array of plant on Earth. It's understandable that each plant type will have a specific way of catalyzing and performing biological reactions and biological pathways. Photosynthesis is no different and that they are three main types of photosynthesis in plants. One is CAM, which is short for Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Second is photosynthesis in C-three (C3) plants and lastly in photosynthesis in C-four (C4) plants. So if we stat with CAM plants, these represent a minority of plant life on Earth. And examples are pineapple and some flowering plants. And CAM metabolism takes place in two stages. First is at night, in which CO-two (CO2) combines with phosphoenolpyruvate or PEP in the presence of any enzyme of PEPC. to eventually generate a compound called oxaloacetate. Which then is converted to malate, a form of sugar. And stored in the vacuoles until the day time. In the day time, the malate is released into the chloroplasts and is converted into pyruvate. Where CO-two (CO2) is present and enters the Calvin cycle. Pyruvate then is shuttled into the TCA cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation and generates ATP. C-three (C3) plants are the far majority of plant life on Earth and I think represent 95 percent of plant biomass. These are older plants in terms of evolution. And they catalyze photosynthesis using the Rubisco enzyme in which CO-two (CO2) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate merge with the presence of Rubisco. To eventually form 3-phosphoglycerate, which is a substrate for glyoxylate, glycolysis. and the TCA cycle which eventually generates ATP. 3-phosphoglycerate can also form sugars such glucose, sucrose and stored sugars such as starch. C-four (C4) are again a minority of plants and their photosynthesis is a hybrid of CAM and C3. And that they use pyruvate and with CO-two (CO2) generate oxaloacetate and malate as in CAM plants. The malate is then transported to the bundle sheath where pyruvate is formed. And that gets broken down into the various pathways to generate ATP. The CO2 gets put to the Calvin cycle whereby more sugar is formed. So, C4 photosynthesis in unique and that photosynthesis occurs really in the chloroplasts as well as in the bundle sheaths. As compared to the other ones in which these are located primarily in one compartment of the cell. I'm Dan Weisenberger and this is what are the three forms of photosynthesis.


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