What Phase Changes Are Exothermic & Endothermic?

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An exothermic reaction is a type of reaction in which heat is a product of the reaction. Find out what phase changes are exothermic and endothermic with help from an applied physics professional in this free video clip.

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Hello, my name is Walter Unglaub, and this is "what phase changes are exothermic and endothermic?" Well, an exothermic reaction is a type of reaction in which heat is a product of the reaction. So, if we're interested in phase changes, there are three basic types of phases. There is solid, such as ice. Then, there's liquid, like liquid water. Gas, such as steam. And, if you keep increasing the energy, here, you can actually go to a plasma state. The plasma state would involve the ionization of the gas, so we're going to consider processes that take us between these four different phases. So, in exothermic reactions, if heat is a product of a reaction, that means that the other components in the reaction are lowering in their energy, in order to conserve energy. So, exothermic reactions, between phases would go from a higher energy state to a lower energy state. So, what are these different processes called then? Going from a plasma state to a gas state would involve ionic recombination of the atoms, that would be an example. Another example would be going from a gas to a liquid. This is known as condensation. And, finally, going from a liquid to a solid is known as freezing. The opposite type of process, or phase change, is known as an endothermic process, or endothermic reaction. So, endothermic processes involve heat as one of the reactants in the process, meaning that you require heat in order to go from one phase to another. So, going from a solid, up to a gas or a plasma, would be an example of an endothermic reaction, versus an exothermic reaction. So, going from a solid to a liquid is known as melting. That's an example of an endothermic process. Going from a liquid to a gas is evaporation. And, if you were to increase the energy high enough to where the electrons are stripped off of the atoms in your gas, you would end up with a plasma. And, this process is known, simply, as ionization. So, these are simple examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions and processes that get you from one phase to another. My name is Walter Unglaub, and this is "what phase changes are exothermic and endothermic?"

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