Solubility vs. Concentration

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Solubility and concentration are related, especially when you're dealing with something like table salt. Find out about solubility versus concentration with help from an experienced chemistry and science professional in this free video clip.

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Video Transcript

I'm Robbin Higgins, and this is solubility versus concentration. Alright, so solubility and concentration aren't enemies or anything, they're just two chemistry terms we use to describe solutions. Let's start with concentration first. So, let's say that we took simple table salt, sodium chloride, and we're gonna put it in water. Well in this situation, sodium chloride would be our solute, what we're putting something into, and water would be our solvent. Whatever we have more of, we put the solid in the liquid, that's usually how it works, solute, solvent. So, our concentration, let's say that we had 10 grams of sodium chloride and we had 100 grams of H20. Then our concentration would simply be a ratio, so 10 grams sodium chloride over 100 grams H20. But we usually don't use these units, we usually use something that denotes volume for the solvent. So a more typical way that we'd see it is 10 grams sodium chloride for every 100 milliliters of H20. Remember that for water, grams and milliliters have a one-to-one conversion, so we can just do this. And this would be something typical that we'd see for concentration. So, let's look at solubility now. Solubility is the ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent. So if it dissolves, it's soluble, if it doesn't, it's not. So, we know that salt will go into water, and let's examine why. When you put salt into water, it actually disassociates into ions, and the ions are positively charged sodium and negatively charged chlorine or chloride. Now water has a chemical structure of H20, draw a couple of guys in here, and remember in solution, every sodium and chlorine ion would be completely surrounded by water. So I'll just draw in a few here, but it's actually gonna be completely covered by different waters. So water has a strong dipole because oxygen is so electro-negative and hydrogen is so electro-positive. So, every water atom we have has three partial charges, two partial charges with positive on the hydrogens, and one partial negative on the oxygen. So, we know that positive and negative charges are attracted to each other, so this positive sodium ion is going to be attracted to this partial positive oxygen atom. Now, the exact opposite's gonna have here with chlorine. So we have a partial hydrogen, that's gonna be attracted to your negative chloride ion. And this is the reason that it's soluble because the interactions between water and the ions are strong enough to separate the interactions between the ions, at least when they're in solution. So, if we have something else, for instance just like a rock that we put in water, the bonds in the rock are too strong amongst themselves to ever dissolve and let water get in the middle. I'm Robin Higgins, and that was solubility versus concentration.


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