Generally, sources describe Ancient Egypt as divided into three historical epochs. These epochs are known as the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. Several different kings ruled in succession during each of these intervals, eventually becoming known as Pharaohs. Beginning about 3,000 B.C.E, official Egyptian religion regarded Pharaoh as descended from Ra, the sun god.
The Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt began in 2650 B.C. Ancient Egypt as a civilization continued until 332 B.C.E., when Alexander the Great conquered the kingdom.
Sources may also further divide Ancient Egypt into additional epochs between these major periods, known as the “Dynastic” and “Intermediate” periods. As with the Kingdom periods, successions of multiple kings ruled during each of these historical intervals.
The first true king of Egypt was Narmer, also called Menes. In 2920 B.C., Narmer/Menes united Lower and Upper Egypt.