The process of creating a nonprofit corporation in California is similar to establishing a for-profit corporation. You must choose a name for the nonprofit, determine its charitable purpose, file articles of incorporation with the California Secretary of State and pay the required filing fee. Although California law requires nonprofits to establish bylaws, nonprofits are not required to file this document with the state.
Subchapter S corporations get special treatment under the Internal Revenue Code, allowing them to avoid the double-taxation common to traditional corporations. With an S corporation, the income and losses of the business flow through to each owner's personal taxes. Though corporations are formed under state laws, it is federal law that controls whether an S corporation can own a subsidiary.
The purpose of a board of directors in a nonprofit corporation is to oversee management of the company and take action when necessary to promote the organization's mission. Directors are subject to both state and federal laws in discharging their duties and must always act in good faith, placing the nonprofit's interest first in all transactions. Knowing when directors may be held liable to the company and to third parties will help ensure that your nonprofit operates effectively.
Nonprofit organizations are companies created for a purpose other than generating profit. Like their for-profit counterparts, nonprofits are subject to the laws of the state where they are formed. In Michigan, specific rules apply to the group overseeing the running of the nonprofit, referred to as the board of directors. Understanding the legal requirements for a nonprofit board as well as the duties required of individual directors will help ensure that your organization stays compliant in Michigan.
The laws of the state in which the Limited Liability Company, or LLC, is chartered, together with its own internal agreements, determine the formalities required of it, as well as the consequences of its failure to follow those formalities. Consequences, if any, generally fall within three categories: liability of members to third parties, liability of members to each other, and involuntary dissolution of the LLC.
Parliamentary procedures are the rules organizations use to conduct meetings. The rules help make meetings run smoothly by designating the persons who are allowed to speak and specifying the procedures for addressing items on an agenda. They allow groups to arrive at decisions in a structured manner by discussing one topic at a time and calling for a vote after relevant discussion. The U.S. Congress, business corporations and various clubs and associations all follow parliamentary procedures. While your organization may use a particular parliamentary authority, there may be instances when a secondary authority is warranted.
A motion to produce documents is request by the opposing party in a legal action to attend a deposition or be provided with documents germane to the case. The request can include documents in any of the currently accepted forms: paper, electronically stored files, or those stored on microfiche. While the method for responding to a motion to produce documents is governed by your state's rules of civil procedure, the process is basically the same in every state.
To protect your individual assets from your business assets, one option is to incorporate your business making it a limited liability corporation (LLC). Most LLCs have a board of directors but if you are a single director LLC you will still need to handle meetings and take minutes to record your activities. As a single director, the taking of minutes is your job. Adding this additional responsibility is necessary to make sure your business is run properly.
Case citation is an important part of our legal system. Case citation systems help lawyers and legal assistants find out what the legal precedents for their cases are. They can also be used to demonstrate that there is a legal precedent for an argument and the case's circumstances. Jurisdiction also plays a large part in legal cases, so case citation systems can also identify if a legal precedent is valid within your case's legal jurisdiction.
Bylaws are a fundamental component in the formation, operation and governance of every state's nonprofit organizations. Essentially, they constitute the subject organization's formal rules and regulations manual, purposed to authorize and guide the governing board of directors to make decisions in the organization's best interest. Bylaw requirements for Illinois nonprofits are established by the General Not for Profit Corporation Act of 1986, which contains the same basic provisions typical in most states as well as several state-specific directives.
In modern times, there are a seemingly endless supply of forms, reports, and other information which a company or investment plan must provide to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The 11-K is among those forms. Particularly irksome is the question of whether a plan is exempted from the sweeping requirements of the 11-K. Fortunately, once you know the rule, determining whether a plan is required to file is relatively straightforward.
In a capital market such as the United States, businesses often purchase other companies to amass a large portfolio. These acquisitions are often financed by loans and indentures between the parent company and a bank. When creating an agreement, these newly purchased companies, called subsidiaries, are subject to several regulations and terms from the bank. A restricted subsidiary must be governed by the parent company by these established rules.
While the term "corporation" may bring to mind images of massive companies that handle massive streams of revenue, a corporation can actually be any individual or organization that chooses to go through the legal process of incorporation. By incorporating an organization can protect the personal assets of its members, give itself certain tax benefits and add a certain air of legitimacy to the organization. However, an organization should consider the possible disadvantages before choosing to incorporate.
A Georgia corporation is relatively easy to form and not very expensive. Responsibilities are actually nothing more than the legal requirements needed to form the corporation, pay taxes and file an annual fee that keeps the corporation active. The Georgia Secretary of State is responsible for incorporating companies and requires at least one owner or officer and a registered agent.
The CE marking is French for European Conformity. The CE mark indicates that the product has met European Union product directives. These product directives include medical products, safety equipment and environmental protection products. CE marking is required for industrial equipment like pressure vessels, personal protective equipment, noise control, medical devices, industrial measurement equipment and boilers. The CE marking is also required on telecommunication equipment and industrial machinery.
New York allows non-profit corporations to be established under Section 501(c)(3) of the Federal Internal Revenue Code, which is often referred to as 503(c). There are restrictions on the type and nature of the work a 503(c) can engage in, and in order to establish one, you will need to file both state and federal tax exemption status forms, and register with the New York Division of Corporations.
Bylaws function as the constitution of an organization. They are typically drafted by founders of corporations, although unincorporated associations use them as well. Even though no state requires corporations to create bylaws and most have no provision for filing them with state authorities, bylaws can become important in the event of an internal dispute. Bylaws deal with issues such as voting rights, management, meetings, elections, organizational record-keeping and changes in membership or shareholding.
Statute of limitations place time limit restrictions on when a party may sue based upon a breach. Statute of limitations vary widely based upon the type of case, and range from one year to infinite. In New York, fraud actions and breach of contract actions have a six-year statute of limitations. As with other states, there are potential restrictions and extensions that may apply.
Business incorporation takes place as the incorporators register their corporate documents with state government. By taking advantage of the resources offered by these state governments, using other online resources and carefully searching for the best venue in which to incorporate, potential corporate officers ensure their incorporation process utilizes best practices without incurring unneeded expense.
The United States Department of Labor administers the Fair Labor Standards Act. The federal Fair Labor Standards Act does not require covered employers to pay their employees extra compensation for "shift work" or night work. As long as employers comply with the federal overtime and minimum wage requirements, employers are not prohibited from hiring employees for overnight work. In Connecticut, the Connecticut Department of Labor is responsible for regulating the state's employment wage and hour laws.
Many people who own stocks including companies like Pepsico are often naturally curious about who the other stockholders are. Under the Pepsico company umbrella are brands such as Pepsi, Frito Lay, Tropicana, Quaker and Gatorade. And while the complete list of stockholders of any large publicly traded company including Pepsico is not available (as there were 182,261 Pepsico stockholders as of 2008 according to the May 2011 prospectus), there are ways to locate who many of them are. This includes the officers of the company, board of directors and employees who must disclose their Pepsico stock sells to the SEC.
Under Oregon law, companies engaged in substantial and continual commerce in Oregon are required to register with the Oregon Secretary of State. If you are a member of an LLC registered to do business in Oregon and you and your business partners wish to terminate operations, you must file an articles of dissolution with the Oregon Secretary of State.
E-commerce has become an environmentally friendly method for business deals. Transactions can be done through email, instead of hard copies, ink signatures and snail mail. To make global e-commerce easier, laws have evolved to accommodate electronically signed documents through the use of digital signatures, or e-signatures. The first step is creating your personal digital mark.
Articles of incorporation -- or a certificate of formation, as it is known in Texas -- is a legal document allowing a business to be recognized as a corporation. This document, generally filed with the secretary of state's office, requires certain information mandated by the state, such as the corporation's name, its purpose, and a listing of shareholders' rights and liabilities. Businesses within the state of Texas, including Tarrant County, must file the same document to incorporate a for-profit business.
Articles of agreement are the founding documents for an entity or organization. They articulate the powers and limitations of an entity's members and explain the founders' mission and goals. Articles of agreement serve the same purpose as articles of incorporation, but the latter term is normally used for business and corporations, while the former is used for nonprofit organizations. Articles of agreement are drafted by founding members to help guide future proceedings.
A corporate general counsel is a person who helps a corporation with decisions and provides advice. The exact scope of a general counsel's duties varies by industry, but the tasks commonly involve legal, ethical and employment matters the corporation faces. Although the general counsel works for the corporation, her job is to assess and resolve corporate matters to the benefit of the stockholders.
There are a number of methods for obtaining a copy of the bylaws of a nonprofit organization. The first method is to request and receive a copy directly from the organization or one of its officers or board members. One can also fill out a specific form and request a copy of the bylaws of a nonprofit organization directly from the Internal Revenue Service. A link to the online form from the Internal Revenue Service can be found in the resources section of this website. Finally, there are other agencies and offices that sometimes maintain copies of these records and…
Shareholder resolutions relate to either company procedures or policy, matters of corporate governance, or other matters of environmental concern or social accountability, according to the Social Investment Forum website. If you are a shareholder in a publicly traded company, you can introduce such a shareholder resolution. Shareholder resolutions are an impactful way to promote corporate responsibility and deter practices that are unethical.
Statute of limitations are time restrictions placed upon a party's right to sue another. Statute of limitations vary based upon the type and nature of the case, and range in duration from unlimited to one year. Illinois provides for a ten year statute of limitation on written contracts, and a five year statute of limitation on oral contracts. There are exceptions and variables which can shorten or lengthen this period of time.
Corporations are organized by individual state, and on issues concerning their governance corporations largely fall under their home state law. Fortunately, however, most states have adopted uniform business law legislation. As a result, while each state is different, corporate laws on minority shareholder rights will be similar regardless of whether the corporation was formed in Ohio, Illinois or Nevada. Most minority shareholder legal rights are spelled out in state statutes.
According to the government of British Columbia, "all businesses, not-for-profit societies, cooperative associations and financial institutions" operating in Canada must file public disclosure documents with the Corporate Registry of each province in which they conduct business. These disclosures include the companies articles of incorporation, the business's address, the names of its corporate directors and a description of the type of business the corporation seeks to conduct. Public records also include whether the business dissolved and the name and address of a person that is authorized to be served with notice of a lawsuit against the business. You can find information…
Dissolving a medical practice is a complex undertaking. Most medical practitioners would want to go their separate ways amicably, but working out the finer details of the dissolution can be challenging. Ending a medical practice involves appropriate arrangements for patients and their records, the liquidation and distribution of assets and attending to other details involved in dissolving a medical practice.
North Carolina law requires that anyone wishing to incorporate his business file articles of incorporation. A person wishing to incorporate his business is called an "incorporator." A business's articles of incorporation provide essential information about the corporation and outline its basic structure . The North Carolina Business Corporation Act sets forth the requirements for articles of incorporation; you must file the completed articles of incorporation with the state.
Texas corporations must follow a set of procedures in order to change their articles of incorporation. These procedures are dictated by a section of Texas law known as the business organization code. This code requires corporations to engage in a series of transparent, democratic, internal processes in order to amend their corporate documents, and to subsequently file that action with the Texas Secretary of State's office.
Non-Disclosure and Confidentiality Agreements (NDAs) are usually entered into by persons or entities discussing private and sensitive information or contemplating doing business with one another. Such agreements protect the parties by requiring that certain designated information not be disclosed to third parties except with authorization from the disclosing party. NDAs are valid and enforceable contracts that should be drafted accordingly.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 came in the wake of several high-profile corporate accounting scandals, including those involving Enron, WorldCom and Tyco International. Confidence in publicly traded companies collapsed when the media revealed the details of unethical insider trades, corporate hubris and corruption of outside auditors. Congress enacted the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, named after Sen. Paul Sarbanes (D-Maryland) and Rep. Michael Oxley (R-Ohio), to rein in such practices.
When you incorporate your business, the law views your corporation as an entity separate from you. This separation divides the control and management of the corporation from those persons who own the corporation (called shareholders). Legally speaking, incorporation offers benefits to doing business, including limiting personal liability for owners and centralized management.
A Florida for-profit corporation can be changed into a nonprofit without dissolving the corporation. If the existing business is not a corporation, it can be dissolved and a new nonprofit corporation can be formed. The purpose of a nonprofit must be charitable, educational, religious, literary, or scientific. If your Florida corporation's current business activities can be transformed to meet a nonprofit purpose, you can convert it to a not-for-profit corporation.
Shareholders are the people who own corporations. Shareholders appoint directors who are responsible for the management of organizations. Even though directors are responsible for the business conduct of corporations, shareholders make important administrative decisions through well-drafted shareholder agreements. Such agreements determine the company's equity structure, the appointment of directors, the voting procedure among shareholders and the liquidity of shares in an organization.
The Internal Revenue Code requires foreign nationals or foreign corporations conducting business in the United States to report income derived from transactions based in the United States. Ordinarily, the tax rate on foreign persons deriving income from sources in the United States is 30 percent. However, the United States has entered into income tax treaties with many countries, where both countries consent to a reduced foreign national income tax rate. A foreign national or foreign corporation deriving income in the United States can reduce its tax rate by filing a W-8 BEN form with the IRS.
Non-profit organizations pursue noncommercial goals, such as education, hunger and disaster relief and scientific research. Non-profits such as churches and trade organizations have members who may elect directors and privileges to use the organization's facilities. Other organizations, especially those offering their services to the public at large, often exist without members. Non-member and member non-profits have bylaws, which control the operation and structure. Many bylaw provisions are common to both types of non-profits, though the major difference lies in how the board of directors are chosen.
Controlling shareholders own a majority of a company's stock or influence most of a corporation's board of directors. That larger claim means dominant shareholders owe specific responsibilities to minority shareholders and the corporation at large. But the law is unsettled on just how substantial those controlling shareholders' obligations are. Several cases outline circumstances in which controlling shareholders can set aside the interests of minority shareholders, and new precedents in this area of corporate law continue to emerge.
Confidentiality is an essential requirement in dealings between individuals, companies or governments. In most cases you will come across a lot of confidential information in the course of rendering professional services. You are supposed to keep this information to yourself because disclosing it to a third party may be injurious to your client or others associated with the situation. There are various agencies that enforce confidentiality in the United States.
The Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002, more commonly known as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act ("Act"), was a financial reform enacted to require strict financial disclosure from publicly traded corporations to investors and regulators, as well as separate corporate accounting from corporate finance. In the nine years since the Act was passed, corporations have lobbied for the law's requirements to be relaxed or abolished due to perceived disadvantages.
Sarbanes-Oxley is a federal act, implemented in 2002, that requires signatures from a company's chief executive officer, or CEO, and chief financial officer, or CFO, on financial documents. Signature stamps have to be verified for compliance.
When starting up a business, there are several legal processes that must be executed. This is particularly true with regard to corporations, where shareholders must sign articles of incorporation.
Unless there is a prior agreement between shareholders and a company in either a shareholders agreement or a rule in a company's articles of association, shareholders in a company may transfer shares that they own to anyone they choose. For that reason, some companies opt to include restrictions on share transfers within either of those documents.
Change is an inevitable part of owning a professional firm. During the lifetime of your firm, you may find it necessary to change the firm's name. Changing the legal name of a business is a simple process that requires filing a document, frequently called a Certificate of Amendment, with the agency in your state responsible for registering business entities.
LLCs are formed according to state laws and required to remain in compliance with federal and state laws. Failure of an LLC to follow certain rules can precipitate a loss of LLC status, which results in a loss of asset protection for its owners, called members. This means the personal assets of the members then become vulnerable to claims of creditors or injured parties. If you are trying to go after a noncompliant LLC, you must prove why the LLC is not a legitimate business entity.
According to Title 31, section 31-2-7 of the Georgia Health Code, all contractors and companies who install septic tanks must be certified. State law also requires all installers to file a $10,000 cash bond to the judge of the probate court in the county in which they do business. Both companies and individual contractors must be certified, and the contractors are required to pass a qualifying examination.
Contracts are legal documents that memorialize an agreement between parties. Contracts are recognized by courts as legal instruments expressing the will of the parties and must be honored unless there are compelling reasons to ignore the terms of the agreement. Drafting contract language can be a challenge, even to the most skilled legal experts. Often, the legal content of a contract must be supplemented or modified through the use of an addendum. An addendum is a page that is added to the end of a contract to either more fully explain information in the contract or to modify the terms…
A power of attorney grants a person the right to rule or represent on another person's behalf. The Companies Act of 1985, specifies power of attorney rules for individuals acting on behalf of a business or corporation.
Filing as a 501(c)(3) tax exempt organization under the Internal Revenue Code is a wise decision for most churches, though not a requirement. For those churches that choose to file the appropriate paperwork, the IRS will give the church a determination letter, which may be necessary to secure other benefits that tax exempt organizations are entitled to receive. These benefits include exemptions in corporate, income, sales, use, personal property and real property taxes. An IRS determination letter also assures financial contributors that their donations will be exempt from federal income tax.
Contracts are used in a variety of situations, including employment, commercial sales of goods and services, as well as in banking arrangements and real estate transactions. In ongoing business arrangements or in employment situations, contracts may be extended or renewed to continue the business relationship. Generally, all parties want to formally acknowledge the renewal of a contract. Renewals should be done in writing and should accurately reflect the terms of the parties' expectations throughout the new period of the contract.
A small business with no more than 100 shareholders can choose to be recognized as an S corporation. Businesses that elect S-corp status do so primarily for the tax benefit, which allows for the income of the business to be passed through to the shareholders without the business paying any taxes. Shareholders then pay the corporation's taxes based on their pro-rata share of the business.
You may have established an LLC in your home state of Maine. Now, however, you have the potential to secure additional customers in the state of Pennsylvania. Most states, including Pennsylvania, require an out-of-state LLC to register as a foreign entity to do business in the state. An LLC transacting business in Pennsylvania may not bring any action in a Pennsylvania court until it has received a certificate of authority to transact business in the state.
Old private clubs with prestigious and elite reputations often refer to their club charters as a founding document that characterizes them. Today, Connecticut refers to the documents used to create and found clubs as articles of incorporation for non-stock corporations. While the term charter may be gone, the tax relief benefit may help make up for it, since social clubs and associations usually qualify as nonprofit organizations eligible for tax exemptions.
GMP stands for Good Manufacturing Practices. Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines have been developed by a variety or governmental and regulatory bodies for a variety of industries to ensure consumer and employee health and safety.
Aspiring entrepreneurs often have numerous questions about the effects and wisdom of incorporating their business. These questions usually revolve around costs, tax consequences, personal liability, legal ramifications, stock issuance, incorporation procedures and requirements for starting a corporation.
Financial institutions that conduct business in the United States are required to establish anti-money laundering (AML) programs under the Patriot Act. The Patriot Act was enacted in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and amends the Banking Secrecy Act. The Patriot Act's intent is to help "prevent, detect, and prosecute international money laundering and the financing of terrorism." Under the Patriot Act, certain financial firms are required to take steps to verify the identity of customers and to report activities that appear suspicious. Firms that fall under the regulations are also held to a high standard of due…
In exchange for payment, an individual or company gives up its right to file a lawsuit against another such entity for all claims by signing a general release document. The document usually contains several key sections defining the consideration involved, a no admission clause and a confidentiality agreement.
Keep your corporation compliant with state regulations by understanding when fees are due to your secretary of state's office. When registering an updated list of a board of directors, you need to pay a fee. Some states require you to update information on your board anytime its membership changes. Other states, such as California, only require updates annually.
To encourage business development, the state of Nevada provides an online fill-in form for articles of incorporation and a 24-hour processing option for corporate filings. Nevada also doesn't require that company operations be physically located in Nevada.
S-Corporation or "S-Corp" meeting minutes provide proof to the IRS and company shareholders that a business is functioning legitimately. The minutes serve as a history of the business. They are proof that a corporation is operating a legal entity, and are required in federal and state guidelines that for operating small businesses. The minutes are usually recorded by the secretary of the organization or some other designee. Corporate minutes include the date and names of the participants.
Bylaws are a necessary and important part of creating a corporation. State law governs the provisions corporations can include in the bylaws. Bylaws are private and not subject to public disclosure unless the corporation chooses to disclose them. Bylaws cannot violate state law.
Spying on Internet usage is much harder than with telephone use because of encryption technology, but you can spy on Internet data. Wiretapping someone's Internet connection, however, may be illegal.
Audits are needed to keep track of expenditure and revenue for the sake of accountability and for financial monitoring. Certified Public Accountants are the licensed persons who handle auditing for private or governmental institutions. Each state has laws reigning over finance and accounts.
The object of corporate governance is to help a company make profits without losing sight of how its activities affect its stakeholders. A company must make certain disclosures about its corporate governance. The requirements vary depending on the laws of the country in which the business operates.
Corporations are businesses owned by their shareholders. States have adopted statutes requiring shareholder agreements, including Florida. Shareholder agreements define the rights and responsibilities of shareholders and have a great impact on the function of corporate operations.
Businesses often operate through complex organizational structures ito accomplish their revenue and tax goals. For example, many businesses own and operate subsidiary companies that provide other services or goods. A subsidiary is a legal business entity wholly controlled and owned by another group or business. A business might decide to convert the legal structure of a subsidiary to a single-member limited liability corporation, which would limit the legal liability of the subsidiary and take advantage of the other legal and tax benefits of an LLC.
Latin American countries have never shared a unified trade policy. However, certain trends have waxed and waned in Latin American politics, resulting in a drift from protectionism to free trade. Currently, much of Latin America is enthusiastically pursuing free trade.
Merger agreements are business contracts that specify the details of combining the operations and functions of two or more businesses. When you want to terminate the agreement, you should never merely "fail to perform" your side of the contract, or you may open yourself or your business up to civil liability. Depending on the specific merger, such a break could cost you millions of dollars in revenue. You should, however, enforce a termination provision that exists in the contract, or come to a mutual agreement with the other parties to the contract to terminate it.
Philippine enterprise law is encompassed under the national Corporation Code, which governs how corporations may be formed and the responsibilities of the incorporators, the individuals who create the company.
Corporate documents may be profit-sharing, employment and stock option agreements, commercial leases, non-competition and non-disclosure agreements, among many others. In drafting corporate documents, attorneys use legal jargon to outline the goals and purpose of each party to the agreement, terms and conditions, compensation arrangements and indemnification provisions.
The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) is one of several laws designed to control government projects and how they are managed. It was signed into law under President Bill Clinton in 1993.
A certificate of authority is required in order for an out-of-state company to do business in Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Department of Financial Institutions can alter or revoke a certificate of authority.
Legal documents contain all sorts of clauses -- written agreements and dispositions -- that are sometimes difficult to decipher. A deeming provision is a simple clause that exists for the singular purpose of expediting legal proceedings.
When a corporation needs to raise capital for expansion or other purposes, one avenue taken involves the issuance of convertible debentures. The investor pays money to the corporation and, in return, receives the debenture. The terms of the debenture provide for payment of interest, a maturity date for repayment and a provision to convert the debenture into stock of the corporation. The terms of this provision determine the type of debenture.
Starting a nonprofit in Illinois is similar to starting a business. The organization must be incorporated, using the same methods required for for-profit companies. Illinois has similar regulations for nonprofits to other states including set fees and deadlines for filing forms. The organization should have state clearance to operate before filing tax-exempt status with the IRS. An Employer Identification Number (EIN) is also required if the organization will have employees.
People who wish to incorporate a business or nonprofit organization in Alabama must do so through the Secretary of State Office. The office is responsible for issuing articles of incorporation along with managing records and requests for public information on corporations based in the state.
The Massachusetts Marketing Code of Conduct outlines rules for interactions between the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and health care providers. The code expressly restricts, limits or forbids certain activities and interactions in marketing and sales of medications and medical devices -- from bedpans to pacemakers.
All common interest groups or condominiums or associations are subject to the Minnesota real estate incorporation statutes. According to the All Business website, incorporating your business not only protects your assets but also safeguards you from incurring personal liability. Your condominium association has taken into consideration the Minnesota rules on articles of incorporation for townhomes.
The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) is a legal entity established for regulating the Chartered Accountant profession in India. This statutory body came into being under the Chartered Accountants Act of 1949. ICAI, as a professional body in its specialization, is second in the world, with UK's CIMA (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) preceding it. CPE credit is continuing professional education credit, awarded to candidates successful in CPE credit programs. Here are ICAI's CPE requirements for its members, for the three-year rolling period from 2008 to 2010. Requirements may change for the next rolling period.
A public corporation listed on a stock exchange typically has many shareholders. Each of these shareholders has the right to vote on matters of corporate governance, including election of the board of directors and the ratification of mergers. However, most shareholders are unable to attend the yearly shareholder meetings to vote in person. The Securities and Exchange Commission has promulgated rules that allow shareholders to vote by proxy, or through another party physically present at the meeting.
The GeForce FX5200 is an older PCI graphics card for your computer. While hardly cutting edge when it comes to running newer games, you can nevertheless eke out additional performance from your aging card by following a few simple tips. None of these require detailed technical knowledge so do not worry if you are not technically inclined.
A general counsel is the chief legal officer of a corporation, an institution or a governmental entity. A general counsel may have associates in the office to assist him. The general counsel protects the interests of the entity by reviewing contracts and pointing out legal risks in a company's path.
Membership corporation law governs organizations that are created for purposes other than to make a profit. These are generally referred to as religious organizations and labor unions, though other types of not-for-profit organizations have members rather than shareholders.
Laws for cell phone manufacturing extend in many different directions. A number of legal actions have passed to ensure continued product and user safety. According to Government Technology, a provider of IT news, radiation is a growing concern with cellular technology and disclosure laws are now being required as a result. Cell phone manufacturing laws also pertain to privacy features and recycled materials.
Applying for nonprofit status in Washington state can be done through the mail or online through the Secretary of State's website. Nonprofit organizations differ from charitable organizations when filing because they are treated as corporations under the law. A nonprofit needs to file Articles of Incorporation while a charitable organization does not need to be incorporated. To qualify as a nonprofit, an organization cannot be a public entity and must not have a goal of making a profit.
Pennsylvania law allows individuals to establish charitable organizations and nonprofit organizations, and for those organizations to be exempt from state taxation. These organizations are often called 501(c)(3) organizations, referring to the Internal Revenue Service code provision regulating federal taxation of charitable organizations.
If you are an insurance adjuster or private detective conducting a recorded interview, you must carefully follow the rules of your state or you will leave yourself open for a number of legal challenges. If you are the head of an insurance company, for instance, your aggrieved customer could file a counterclaim against you and win. Thus several safeguards exist to ensure that a judge will allow your recorded interview as evidence. As National Association of Investigative Specialists founder Ralph Thomas says, if the court finds that you did not follow even one small aspect of the law, you could…
Issued by the federal government, the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule covers the requirements for preventing spills into water or onto the shore, as well as being prepared for and responding to them. This rule covers the construction, alarm systems and testing of above-ground oil storage tanks.
Tennessee law requires all corporations doing business under assumed names other than their legal corporate ones to register with the Tennessee Department of State. Assumed names are often called DBA for "doing business as." Trademarks or service marks are not considered assumed names. Registration is valid for five years and may be renewed. The secretary of state may cancel the right to use an assumed name if a company fails to renew its registration, if the corporation is dissolved or its right to operate in Tennessee is revoked, or if the company files an application to change or cancel the…
The law does not require privately owned corporations to file bylaws in the public record. Public outcry for transparency in business operations causes many corporations to publish company bylaws that might otherwise be private.
New Mexico law regulates the creation and acts of business associations chartered in New Mexico. All business associations engaged in commerce within the state of New Mexico are required to register with the Corporations Bureau of the Public Regulation Commission. Corporate registrations in New Mexico are public records, and companies that wish to change their name must file with the Corporations Bureau to amend the public record.
Philippine corporation law is based on the Corporation Code of the Philippines. It outlines how corporations should be formed in the territory and who is responsible for executing certain tasks, which are outlined in a business'` articles of incorporation.
Tuition reimbursement is a great employment perk. But if you take the reimbursement and you leave your job prematurely, your employer may have the option of suing you for repayment, but is likely to do this only as a last resort.
While the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) overlap in many ways, there are several key differences when it comes to good clinical practice. According to the FDA, both organizations require five member institutional review board panels and at least one of those members must possess a non-scientific background. Nevertheless, the FDA and ICH Good Clinical Practice (GCP) differ when it comes to clinical studies inside and outside of the United States.
Cooperatives are businesses that are democratic organizations run by their members for their benefit. Cooperatives requires special business arrangements that differ from regular corporations. Because of the not-for-profit nature and member-led leadership, special bylaws need to be put in place to establish the structure of the cooperative, the requirements for membership, regularly scheduled for member meetings and the executive board to oversee the cooperative and to run meetings.
Incorporating a business in any state comes down to submitting the proper forms, filled out correctly, with an accompanying fee. In Iowa, the main form needed is the Article of Incorporation. This form may have a different name depending on the type of organization you will be incorporating. Iowa currently has eight main business organizations to structure under. Once you determine the structure of your business, the fee schedule page of the Iowa Secretary of State website provides a listing of the appropriate forms and the fees for your structure (see Resources).