You can put bread in the oven again if it's not cooked all the way through depending on several factors, including whether you're making a quick bread or yeast bread. Partially baked bread rolls can be frozen after they've baked for 15 minutes but haven't browned. Finish baking the thawed rolls at the temperature the recipe calls for until the rolls brown.
Quick breads depend on egg whites, baking powder and baking soda to rise. Egg whites are beaten until light and fluffy to the point where they'll hold a peak. The egg whites are gently folded into the bread batter. When baked, the incorporated egg whites puff out, taking the batter with them. Baking powder and soda depend on gases released when mixed with an acid, such as milk. The gas is trapped by the flour becoming solid as it bakes. Put theses breads back in the oven at the temperature specified in the recipe until a dull knife inserted into the bread comes out clean.
Freshly baked bread looks doughy when it's cut while still hot, even when baked through. If the dough looks raw rather than doughy, you could put it back in the oven. If the top of the loaf has browned, that inhibits the rising action from the yeast, so the raw dough won't have the proper texture when baked further. The best method is prevention in this case. As odd as it sounds, use a meat thermometer to determine if the bread is done. It is finished baking when the internal temperature is 190 degrees Fahrenheit. Wait until the bread is nearly finished baking based on the baking time noted in the recipe. If you put the thermometer in too soon, the bread could collapse. If you've removed the bread from the oven and it hasn't reached 190 degrees Fahrenheit, put it back in the oven.
Bread Not Rising
Most quick breads depend on baking powder or soda as the rising agent. The correct portions must be used dependent on the amount of flour and liquid ingredients. Acid causes the gas to be produced. If you substitute water for milk you decrease the amount of acid, and the quick bread won't rise. Flat quick breads may look like they need to finish baking but additional baking won't correct the problem.
Yeast Bread Not Rising
Yeast is a living organism. It is in a dormant form in the little yeast packages. It does have a shelf life. If the yeast, or most of the yeast, is dead, the bread won't rise. Yeast requires warmth and a liquid to produce the gas that causes the bread to rise. If there isn't enough liquid, the bread won't rise. If the liquid is too hot, it will kill the yeast. If the liquid is too cold, the yeast won't produce gas. The liquid should feel very warm to your hand but not uncomfortable. If the oven is too hot, the yeast will be killed before the bread has risen. Bread that hasn't risen properly looks like it's not baked. Putting the bread back in the oven won't fix it.
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