Eggs in bread recipes typically provide a bit of extra moisture in the dough. The flour contains enough gluten on its own to eliminate the need for a binding agent, another role eggs sometimes play in cooking, and the leavening usually comes from baking powder or soda. This opens a number of possibilities for egg replacements when you're baking bread.
It takes only 1 tbsp. of soy flour mixed with 1 tbsp. of water to substitute for one egg in a bread recipe, making it an economical replacement. The soy flour's protein stands in for an egg with no discernible difference in the loaf. You can purchase soy flour at most any health food outlet or food co-op, usually in the bulk section where you can buy as little or as much as you need. Store it in the pantry.
Many different sorts of starches can substitute for egg protein, including potato starch or arrowroot powder. You can purchase potato starch in a grocery store's health food section. Potato starch requires 2 heaped tbsp. to replace each egg. The same goes for arrowroot powder, a gluten-free alternative for those on a restricted diet. Cornstarch works in this same manner and amount, although it doesn't tolerate high heat like potato and arrowroot starch do.
You can use products already in your cabinet such as baking powder in place of the eggs in a bread recipe. In a separate bowl, combine 2 tbsp. of flour, ½ tsp. of oil, ½ tsp. of baking powder and 2 tbsp. liquid -- water or slightly warm milk will do. Or you can use 2 tbsp. of water, 1 tbsp. of oil and ½ tsp. of baking powder. To retain the stickiness an egg can give to a dough, use 1 tbsp. of gelatin or fruit pectin with 3 tbsp. of warm water.
You can substitute 1 tbsp. of ground flaxseed plus 2 to 3 tbsp. of warm water for an entire egg. Put the water in a small bowl, stir in the flaxseed, and let it sit for a while. Add it to your bread with the rest of your wet ingredients and prepare the loaf as usual. Flaxseed retains the omega-3s but contains none of the fat or cholesterol found in eggs. As a bonus, flaxseed also adds fiber. If you cannot find ground flaxseed, grind whole flaxseed in a coffee grinder until it resembles a coarse powder that looks like a darker version of wheat germ.
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