CVA stands for cerebrovascular accident, which is more commonly known as a stroke. It can be deadly, and in 2011, remains the number three cause of death in the United States. Stroke survivors often suffer from stroke-related disabilities that can impact physical, psychological and social aspect of their lives.
A stroke, which is a cerebrovascular disorder, is also called a "brain attack" because the event affects the vessels and blood supply to the brain. The effects of a stroke vary depending on the type of stroke, its location in the brain and the patient's overall health status. The first priority for the health care team is to stabilize the stroke patient. Staff can then assess the effects of the stroke. Some effects may be present immediately and persist, while others become evident later, and are considered late effects of a CVA.
ICD9-CM Cerebrovascular Disorders
The ICD9-CM, a system for categorizing and coding medical conditions for diagnostic and billing purposes, lists late effects of a CVA as cognitive deficits, speech language deficits, dysphasia, aphasia, hemiplegia and hemiparesis. It is important to note some conditions may be present at the time of the stroke, but others may become evident later, even years after a stroke. Health care providers must determine if the condition is related to the stroke.
Deficits and functional losses due to strokes are caused by damage to the brain. After a CVA, deficits manifest themselves in bodily functions, which are affected by the damaged parts of the brain. A CVA may affect cognition, speech, swallowing, vision and physical mobility. Cognitive deficits are problems with thought processes. After a stroke, some people experience problems, with memory, reasoning and attention.
Speech language deficits, such as aphasia, can also be a result of a CVA. Dysphasia, which is difficulty with swallowing, may affect the patient's ability to eat. Visual problems, such as visual field cuts, may be a result of a CVA.
Hemiplegia is paralysis on one side of the body, while hemiparesis is weakness on one side of the body. These conditions affect the muscles of the body that receive nerve impulses from the damaged part of the brain. The stroke patient may have difficulty walking and using the affected limbs.
Immediate Health Care
Many variables play a role in determining the short- and long-term effects of a CVA. It is impossible to know for certain which late effects of a CVA a person may experience. Access to the health care system at the first signs and symptoms of a stroke may reduce the possible late effects of a CVA.