Landforms in Scandinavia

Scandinavia is one of the coldest areas in the world, consisting of many landforms.
Scandinavia is one of the coldest areas in the world, consisting of many landforms. (Image: Hemera Technologies/ Images)

Scandinavia is a distinctively isolated ethnic and geographic region located in Northern Europe, covering the whole Scandinavian Peninsula. It is comprised of Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland and Denmark. The most interesting and prominent landforms in Scandinavia include mountains, fjords, valleys and glaciers.


The Scandinavian mountains run across Norway, Sweden and Finland. This mountain range is often referred to as “The Keel,” because it resembles a boat’s keel. Most of the mountains on the Keel are around 3,000 to 6,000 feet, although the highest peak, Galdho Peak, reaches up to 8,100 feet. The highest peaks are mostly situated in Norway. Most of the Scandinavian mountain range is filled with glaciers and ice fields.


The Norwegian fjords are one of the most beautiful landforms in the Scandinavian Peninsula. Fjords form because of glacial activities, carving out a body of water surrounded by tall cliffs and steep mountain-sides. Fjords in Norway include the Romsdalsfjord, Geirangerfjord, and the Sognefjord. Romsdalsfjord and Geirangerfjord have snowy steep cliffs and green coastlines, while the Sognefjord is the longest fjord in Norway.


Although Norway is filled with fjords and mountains, most of Scandinavia also has valleys. Valleys are lowlands and plains between mountains and hills, typically situated near a river or a body of water. In Sweden, well known valleys include Lapporten, Rapa and Tarfala Valley. The Tornio Valley is a glacial valley located between the borders of Sweden and Finland.

Volcanic Landforms and Glaciers

The volcanic region in Iceland makes up another landform situated in Scandinavia. Iceland is an island filled with active volcanic areas, providing a unique landform made from lava, similar to the process that created the Hawaiian islands. On average, at least one volcano erupts every five to 10 years.

Huge glaciers can also be found in island. Glaciers are a combination of rocks, soil, snow and ice that form in places where ice accumulates because the snow that melts is much less than the snow that forms. Although Iceland is filled with volcanoes, about 11.5% of its land area is covered with glacial ice.

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