Climate regions are classified according to the Köppen Climate Classification System. The system became widely used after 1900, when Wladimir Köppen devised a categorization of the Earth's climates based on the flora and soil found in the regions. Tropical climates belong to the low-latitude climates that are characterized by tropical air clusters regulated by the equator. Broadly, tropical regions can be divided into two climate regions: tropical moist climates and wet-dry tropical climates. In addition, a third region can be found in deserts, a dry tropical climate that is sometimes also referred to as desert biome.
Tropical Moist Climate
Tropical moist climate is found in rain forests, particularly in the Amazon, East Indies and Congo. The climate is characterized by high humidity (typically up to 88 percent) especially during summer, and an even air temperature of about 27 degree Celsius all year-round. Heavy rains happen throughout the year. Tropical moist climates can be further divided into two categories: tropical wet and tropical monsoon climates. Tropical wet climates have heavy rain showers almost daily, air temperature stays even year-round, and the weather is most often sunny. Tropical monsoon climates differ from the tropical wet climate by having a few months every year with less rain.
Wet-Dry Tropical Climate
Wet-dry tropical climate is the climate found in savannahs and sometimes also referred to as a tropical continental climate. This type of tropical climate covers most areas of Africa, India, northern Australia and South America. Typically, savannah climates have a distinct dry and wet seasons. The dry season is considerably cooler than the wet season, which is in the summer with temperatures rising to 40 degrees Celsius. Wet season does provide heavy rains; however, considerably less than monsoons and not enough to have entire forests in the region, thus the areas it affects are known as grasslands.
In an article on climate change, the Independent Newspaper reports on greenhouse emissions and other environmental concerns affecting tropical climate regions. Climate change is spreading tropical regions further south and north. The consequences to affected areas are tropical climates that produce more storms in some areas and more drought in others. The widening of the tropical climate regions can also directly effect global warming, expediting its progress.
Dry tropical climate, also known as a desert biome, happens in desert areas bordering the equator on both sides. This type of climate is typical in northern Mexico, Argentina, central Australia and southwestern United States. These desert areas have intense heat that quickly, with light winds, dissipate any moisture from rains, resulting in arid desert conditions.