Different Processes of Ground Water Purification

Groundwater is defined as water found underneath ground surfaces in soil pores and rock formations. An important water source, groundwater supplies 50% of drinking water in the United States, and 80% in Europe, according to an article in the Journal of Zhejiang University. Industrialization and agricultural production contaminate groundwater sources. Effective methods for groundwater purification are essential for ensuring a safe water supply.

  1. Contaminants

    • Groundwater contains contaminants that pose environmental and health risks. Heavy metals precipitate in water at neutral and basic pH, but are soluble at a low pH. Hydrocarbons including kerosene and diesel have low specific gravities and float on the surface of groundwater. In contrast, halogenated hydrocarbons have high specific gravities and infiltrate water-bearing permeable rock known as aquifers. Pharmaceuticals including hormones, antibiotics and cosmetics enter groundwater via sewage treatment plants and waste deposits.

    Artificial Groundwater Recharge

    • Artificial groundwater recharge is a purification process using artificially installed sand and gravel layers which increases the quantity and quality of stored water by natural processes such as filtration, precipitation and sedimentation. This process is particularly conducted in sedimentary plains and river valleys and removes a range of inorganic and organic contaminants. The specific technique used depends on the availability of ground space and the level of purification required.

    Phytoremediation

    • Phytoremediation uses genetically modified plants and bacteria to remove toxic contaminants from groundwater. Plants and bacteria are able to metabolize toxic compounds; however, naturally occurring plants and bacteria lack the enzymatic machinery to completely degrade compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Hence, since 2007, up to 300 million U.S. dollars have been invested annually in developing genetically altered organisms with this capability.

    Iron Technology

    • Iron possesses reductive and adsorptive properties, enabling it to remove groundwater contaminants. Iron with a 3+ valence state removes electrons from microbes during respiration. These oxidised microbes then remove electrons from metals such as chromium and uranium, precipitating them for easy uptake. Iron-based nanoparticles utilize the surface area, enhanced mobility and increased reactivity of nanoparticles to improve efficiency. Iron is also used in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), which intercept and degrade contaminants in groundwater.

Related Searches

References

Resources

You May Also Like

  • DIY Water Purification

    More than 70 percent of the earth's surface is covered in water, yet 1.1 billion people still lack access to safe drinking...

  • Water Purification & Testing

    Approximately 15 percent of Americans have private water supplies--wells, lakes and rivers--making them solely responsible for testing and purifying their drinking ...

  • Pollutants of Groundwater

    Pollutants of Groundwater. In the United States, 51 percent of the population relies on groundwater. But pollution from waste dumps, mining sites,...

  • About Water Purification

    According to the World Health Organization, over 1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water, with 1.8 million dying as a...

  • Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils & Groundwater

    Hydrocarbons that contaminate the soil and groundwater pose significant risks to public health and environmental stability. Despite efforts by government and private...

  • The Factors Affecting the Self-Purification of Streams

    An interesting and much-studied topic, stream self-purification describes the ability of streams to gradually clean themselves, improving the quality of water over...

  • Desalination Vs. Water Purification

    Water desalination is a subcategory of water purification. In common use, desalination (or desalinization) is the general term for processing drinkable (potable...

Related Ads

Featured