Pigeons and doves are in the Columbidae family. Their sizes range from 6.5 inches to 15.5 inches long. People use the two names interchangeably, though dove usually applies to the smaller of this species and pigeon for the larger ones. There are no other firm distinguishing features between doves and pigeons other than the names. However, this is not true for the rock dove. Although it is called a dove, it is the common pigeon found most often in cities.
The common and Ruddy ground-dove, and the Inca are 6 to 8 inches long. All three have rufous wings. The Inca has a long tail, and scaly, gray body, while the common ground-dove has a brown body and dark tail with white corners. The Ruddy ground-dove is rufous on top and wine-colored underneath with a blue-gray head.
The ringed turtle dove (also known as the Eurasian collared-dove) has a black half ring on the back of the neck. The ringed turtle doves and mourning doves are sandy colored. The white-winged dove is brownish-gray and has black wings with a broad white diagonal band. The white-tipped dove is dark gray with a light gray breast and a white throat and forehead. The ringed turtle dove has darker buff wings and a pale, gray-pink head and breast. All of these doves are approximately 12 inches long and all of them except the mourning dove have rounded tails.
The rock dove and band-tail pigeon are slightly over 13 inches. The rock dove is a chunky bird with a short, rounded tail, two narrow, black wing bands and a black tail band. Body colors range from buff white, rust or all black. The band-tail pigeon is dark gray on top fading to white on the lower belly. It has a purple head and under parts.
The Inca's call is a soft repeated coo-coo sound and the common ground-dove has a coo-oo coo-oo sound that rises in inflection. The Ruddy ground-dove's cry is a woo-woo with an occasional per-woo per-woo while the ringed turtle dove voices a soft koo-krooo with emphasis on the second syllable. The mourning dove's call is a slow mournful coo coo coo, while the white-winged dove makes more of a hooo hooo ho hooo sound. The white-tipped dove's call sounds like a deep foghorn. The rock dove cries with a soft guttural cooing and the band-tailed pigeon has a deep owl-type call.
- "National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds"; Miklos D. F. Udvardy; 1997
- "Birds of North America, Western Region"; Fred J. Alsop III; 2001
- Missouri Department of Conservation: Dove Migration and Habitat
- Animal Diversity Web: Family Columbidae
- Davidson College: Mourning Dove
- Photo Credit Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images Hemera Technologies/Photos.com/Getty Images
How to Raise Doves & Pigeons for Meat
For most people, the term dove conjures up images of beautiful animals denoting peace and love -- something to release at a...
How to Build a Birdhouse for Doves
The soft cooing of mourning doves can bring a touch of the wild to your garden. Although doves such as mourning doves...
How to Tell if Pigeons Are Male or Female
Sexing pigeons can be tricky and even experts are occasionally fooled. Unlike many animals, birds, in general, do not have obvious physical...
Differences Between Passenger Pigeons & Carrier Pigeons
The carrier pigeon is a domesticated rock pigeon (Columba livia) which is used to carry messages, while the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius)...
Birds That Sound Like Owls
Owls are distinctive among other birds for many features. Their unique appearance and nocturnal habits set them apart from other raptors, and...
Characteristics Of Doves
Doves are small, stocky birds belonging to the pigeon family that are known for their low, soft cooing. Some, like the mourning...
How to Buy a Cockatiel
Buying a cockatiel first requires deciding if the bird should be primarily attractive or primarily friendly, and then visit a local pet...
What Is the Difference Between Pigeons & Doves?
Pigeons and doves are both common names that cause confusion, as the rock dove is the same as a common pigeon, but...