What Does Sales & Marketing Involve?

Effective marketing impacts sales figures for companies and manufacturers.
Effective marketing impacts sales figures for companies and manufacturers. (Image: i love sales image by Wolfgang Kraus from Fotolia.com)

Sales figures kept by the Economics and Statistics Administration, part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the U.S. Census Bureau track sales made in the areas of retail and food services, durable goods, construction, manufacturing, services and farm goods and products. Evaluations of the effectiveness of marketing in the United States rest with the amount of sales in each sector.

Sales Defined

Sales involve wholesale and retail products. Wholesale goods incorporate trade sales, while retail goods feature consumer sales. The definition of "sales" involves gross, net and cut-rate sales. Gross sales include income paid for services or goods recorded at invoice values, the amount paid for the item from the supplier. Net sales are the amount of the sale, minus the costs of doing business. Cut-rate sales events offer items at a price reduction over retail in an effort to reduce the company's inventory. Business owners may reduce prices for a cut-rate sale to the price paid on the business' sales inventory.

Marketing Defined

The term "marketing" refers to the exchange of materials, goods or services for a set sum of money that both seller and buyer concur is a reasonable amount. Marketing involves both wholesale and retail goods and services. Commercial marketing deals with the promotion of a product, item or service to retail companies. Commercial marketing companies design appeals to market products and services to consumers.

Sales Techniques & Approaches

The product or service offered for sale influences the type of sales techniques and approaches. Sales approaches match the sales approach with the selling agent, and include appeals to safety, security, emotion, history and family. Appeals that ask the buyer to consider family and safety call on the buyer to provide for home safety or provide for family needs. History appeals incorporate a tradition or cultural event to promote a sale. Types of sales techniques feature the soft sell, where sellers gradually draw the buyer in to believe that the sale is best for the individual. Hard sales, another sales technique, use a heavy hand in controlling the buyers' feelings about the product and the actual sale.

Marketing Techniques

Marketing promotes a product over the competition of like products. Marketing approaches include snail mail, telephone, electronic communication, viral marketing and social media. A successful marketing campaign studies the competition and provides the consumer with a reason to purchase one product over another, marketing exclusive features the one product uniquely offers compared with other companies. Quality marketing techniques require research of the business competition, as well as a thorough evaluation of the buyers of the product or service. Marketing techniques incorporate change or enhancements that the product offers, savings of one product over another, and the value of a product to a person compared with another. Marketing also features the use of fallacies or errors in reasoning. Bandwagon, promotion of a product because large numbers of buyers use the item; panacea, one product provides a universal for all conditions or problems; and vague terms that create a feeling in the buyer but little actual change for the purchaser, are just three forms of marketing featuring fallacies.

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