How to Cite in Chicago Format

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The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) provides guidelines for the correct citation of sources in a research paper. To properly cite according to CMS style, you should use footnotes to credit sources within the text and also list sources in a bibliography at the end of your paper. As with other citation styles, you must format your citations in a specific order, according to what type of source you are citing. The newest Manual is the 16th edition, used here; each new version changes slightly, so read any submission guidelines to ensure you are using the correct version.

  • Arrange a footnote for a book in the following format:

    Footnote number. Author's First Last, Title of Book in italics (City of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s).

    Your bibliographic entry for a book should be formatted as follows:

    Author's Last, First. Title of Book in italics. City of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

  • Arrange a footnote for a journal article in the following format:

    Footnote number. Author's First Last, "Title of Article," Name of Journal in italics Volume number, Issue number (Year): page number(s) you are citing.

    Your bibliographic entry for a journal article should be formatted as follows:

    Author's Last, First. "Title of Article." Name of Journal in italics Volume number, Issue number (Year): page number(s) on which the article appears.

  • Arrange a footnote for a newspaper article in the following format:

    Footnote number. Author's First Last, "Title of Article," Name of Newspaper in italics (City, State), Month Day, Year.

    Your bibliographic entry for a newspaper article should be formatted as follows:

    Author's Last, First. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper in italics (City, State), Month Day, Year.

  • Arrange a footnote for an Internet page in the following format:

    Footnote number. Author's First Last, "Title of Page," Name of Site in italics, Accessed Month Day, Year, Full Web Address.

    Your bibliographic entry for an Internet page should be formatted as follows:

    Author's Last, First. "Title of Page." Name of Site in italics. Accessed Month Day, Year. Full Web Address.

Tips & Warnings

  • Footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout your paper, beginning with "1." Do not start your count over on every page.
  • When you are citing a work by more than one author, invert only the name of the first author listed. Names in footnotes should always be listed beginning with the first name. For example:
  • Footnote: 1. John Smith and Jane Smith
  • Bibliography: Smith, John, and Jane Smith

References

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