Normally, you should always ensure your Polish passport will cover the amount of time you plan to live in the United States. However, in the event that you must renew your passport, you can still do so without having to leave Poland. To do this, you need to follow the same procedures you would have to follow if you lost your passport.
Locate the nearest Polish embassy or consulate office in your area.
Fill out the forms needed for a new passport as given to you by the embassy or consulate. Surrender your old Polish passport when asked for it.
Provide two passport photos for the forms. If the embassy is unable to take the pictures for you, it should be able to direct you to someplace where you can.
Pay any applicable fees for the passport. You should receive the passport proper in two to three weeks; however, you can get certification of citizenship if you need to leave the U.S. sooner.