It is very important to cite all the sources that you use for writing your term papers. This is true not only of published materials but also of unpublished materials such as scholarly papers. Citing unpublished materials can sometimes be tricky, simply because most citations consist of publication details. However, the American Psychological Association (APA) sets forth clear guidelines for the proper citation of unpublished scholarly papers.
Cite an unpublished manuscript by listing the author's last name and first initial, the year in parentheses followed by a period, the title in italics followed by a period and the words "Unpublished manuscript" followed by a period. For example:
Smith, L. (2010). The psychology of the American experience. Unpublished manuscript.
If the manuscript cites a university or institution, list that information at the end. For example:
Smith, L. (2010). The psychology of the American experience. Unpublished manuscript, University of Maine.
Cite manuscripts that are as yet unpublished but have been submitted for publication in the following format with the title in italics:
Smith, L. (2010). The psychology of the American experience. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Cite unpublished papers presented at conferences in the following format with the title in italics:
Smith, L. (2010, June 11). The psychology of the American experience. Paper submitted at the American Psychology Convention, Boston, MA.
Tips & Warnings
- In APA style, capitalize only the first letters of the titles of documents, along with any proper nouns that appear in the title.
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