How to Calculate PPB


Chemists use a variety of units to express the concentrations of solutions. Solutions have two components: the solute, which represents the compound present in the smaller amount, and the solvent; the solute and solvent together represent the solution. Mass percent — sometimes called weight percent — given by (mass of solute) / (mass of solution) x 100, represents one of the more common concentration units. In extremely dilute solutions, however, concentrations expressed as mass percents become very small numbers. For convenience, chemists may opt to multiply the solute/solvent mass ratio by 1 billion, or 10^9, instead of 100. The concentration units then represent parts per billion, or ppb.

Things You'll Need

  • Calculator
  • Determine the mass of solute and mass of solution. This requires knowledge of the solution’s preparation. If you are dealing with a water-based solution, then 1 milliliter of solution represents 1 gram of solution. For example, a solution prepared by dissolving 0.005 grams of sodium chloride, or NaCl, in water and then diluting it to a total volume of 1.0 liter, contains 0.005 grams of solute and 1,000 grams of solution because 1 liter is equal to 1,000 milliliters and 1,000 milliliters is equal to 1,000 grams.

  • Divide the mass of the solute by the mass of the solution using a calculator. For dilute solutions, this will result in a small number. Continuing the previous example, 0.005 / 1000 = 0.000005.

  • Calculate the concentration in ppb by multiplying the ratio of the mass of solute to mass of solution by 1 billion, or 1,000,000,000. In the case of a mass ratio of 0.000005, this would give 5,000 ppb.


  • Photo Credit Jupiterimages/ Images
Promoted By Zergnet


You May Also Like

  • How to Calculate PPM

    How to Calculate the PPMs; How to Calculate PPM & PPB; Print this article; Things You'll Need. Calculator; Solvent; Solute; Scale; Show...

  • How to Convert Parts Per Million to Conductivity

    The conductivity of water is the result of ions that carry the electrical current. Ion concentration is frequently reported in parts per...

  • How to Convert PPM to MG/L

    Calculator; Solution density in grams/milliliter; Show More. Instructions. 1. Write out the ppm value of your solution concentration, replacing ppm with units...

  • How to Convert PPM to PPT

    How to Calculate PPM & PPB. Parts per million (ppm) is a unit of concentration which tells you the number of "parts"...

  • How to Convert PPM to MCG

    Indiana University Northwest: Concentrations - ppm and ppb; Photo Credit Images; More Like This. How to Convert MGM3 to PPM;

  • How to Convert Micromolar to PPM

    Micromolar (mM) and parts per million (ppm) both measure a solution's concentration. ... Concentration: ppm and ppb; N. De Leon; Frostburg State...

  • Calculating DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunities)

    Photo Credit calculator image by dinostock from work ... Calculating the parts per million (PPM) of a chemical in a substance...

Related Searches

Read Article

How to Build and Grow a Salad Garden On Your Balcony

Is DIY in your DNA? Become part of our maker community.
Submit Your Work!