The word "constant" is an algebraic term referring to a number that doesn't have any variables, such as "x" or "y," attached to it. (See Reference 1) For example, "7" is a constant, but "7x" is not. Essentially, constants are just regular numbers, so finding the factors of a constant term is akin to factoring any number. The concept of factoring is typically taught in late elementary or early middle school. When asked to find factors, the answer is simply a list of pairs of numbers that multiply to equal the number being factored.
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Write down the number "1" and the constant that you're being asked to factor. This is your first factor pair, because 1 times any constant equals that constant. For instance, if you're asked to factor "12," write down "1, 12."

Determine whether the number "2" is a factor of your constant. Essentially, you want to figure out if you can multiply 2 by some integer to equal your constant. In the case of 12, 2 is indeed a factor, as it can be multiplied by 6 to produce 12. So, in the example, your second factor pair is "2, 6." If 2 doesn't multiply evenly into your constant, as would be the case if you were factoring a number like 9, then don't write anything down for this step.

Determine whether the number "3" is a factor of your constant. As with ascertaining whether "2" was a factor, you need to figure out if you can multiply 3 by some integer to equal your constant. In the case of 12, 3 is also a factor, because it can be multiplied by 4 to equal 12. Hence, in the example, your third factor pair is "3, 4." If 3 doesn't multiply evenly into your constant, then don't list any factors for this step.

Continue in this manner, testing the nextlargest integer to see if it is a factor, until you reach the constant. In the example, the rest of the factor pairs are: 4 and 3, 6 and 2, and 12 and 1. Thus, in total, the factors of 12 are: 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 6, 6, 12 and 12. If you are factoring a positive number, you can stop testing factors when you begin encountering repeats. For example, if you'd been factoring 12 instead of 12, you could have stopped after testing "3" because any factors thereafter would have already been listed.
Tips & Warnings
 Include only integers when factoring; do not list fraction or decimal numbers.
 Every constant has at least two factors: the number "1" and that constant. For example, "3" has exactly two factors: 1 and 3.
References
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