Most experts write books or journals to notify their professional communities of their accomplishments and breakthroughs. Although the innovative idea might be revolutionary to a field, the innovator built his path on the foundation of what came before him. To build credibility, the innovator should acknowledge what techniques or information helped him achieve his goal. To avoid the backlash associated with plagiarism as an author, you must identify each piece you referred to when collecting information on your subject. The medical field acknowledges several formal styles to reference information.
NLM Style for a Single-author Article
According to the National Library of Medicine, an article from a medical journal should be cited in six parts, the first including the author's last name followed by the initial of the first name, ending with a period. Next appears the title of the piece with the first word capitalized, followed by a period. The rest of the information includes the italicized full title of the journal followed by a period, the year the entry appeared in the journal followed by a semicolon, the volume of the journal followed by a colon, and finally the page range followed by a period.
NLM Style for an Article with More Than One Author
If more than one name appears as author of the article, list all names in the order they appear, and separate each name with a comma. If more than six authors contributed to the piece, list the first three names followed by the Latin phrase "et al.," meaning and others. List the names in the order they appear because the order reflects the main contributors to the piece. Include the remaining components in the same order as previously mentioned.
AMA Manual for Online Journals
According to the American Medical Association, when citing an online journal, record the following nine components in this order: author's name(s) (each name separated by comma), the title of the article with first word capitalized, the name of the journal in italics, the year of the publication, the volume of the journal, the page range, the URL, and the date accessed. Separate the names with commas, followed by a period. End the title and the name of journal with a period. Separate the year and volume with a semicolon, and the volume and page range with a colon. For the range, URL and access date, use a period.
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors requires references to be cited similarly to NLM and AMA style standards, but when using ICMJE standards, abbreviate the name of the journal. For example, the New England Journal of Medicine is written as "N Engl J Med." Continue the citation by adding the date of publication either as year, the abbreviated month and the day followed by a semicolon, or, if the journal continues page numbering across journal volumes, the year alone will suffice.
- International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Sample References
- AMA Style Guide: Based on AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed., 2007
- NLM Style Guide Based on National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographical citation by Karen Patrias, 1991
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