Livorno, a major port located on the west coast of Italy, is the second largest city in Tuscany, after Florence. Most people find themselves here as they're preparing to catch a ferry to the islands of Elba, Sardinia or Corsica, far more popular destinations for tourists than the city itself. While Livorno's maritime history and Tyrrhenian Sea location mean that arriving by boat is not unusual, when you're coming from the capital city of Rome, located some 200 miles to the south, you'll likely roll into town by train, bus or car.
Rome to Livorno by Train
Leave Rome's Termini train station on a fast regional train that takes you directly to Livorno on the Rome-La Spezia line. There are over 30 trains per day, and the trip takes between two and four hours, depending on which one you choose. Otherwise, you'll have to take a train from Rome to Florence and then connect from Florence to Livorno. While train travel on the direct route is convenient, fast and cheap, Livorno's Centrale train station is not close to the city center or the port, despite what the name implies. Unless you have someone meeting you at the station, you'll need to take a bus or a taxi into the town center.
Rome to Livorno by Bus
The first part of your bus trip between Rome and Livorno will involve traveling from Rome to Pisa. You can catch a coach at the Termini train station or the Tiburtina train station for a trip that ranges between two and a half and four hours, depending on the time of day and the route. From Pisa, A.T.L. buses leave every half hour for Livorno; the trip will take less than an hour. You'll disembark at the Largo Duomo station, which is right in the center of town and close to the central markets.
Rome to Livorno by Car
Driving in Italy sometimes requires nerves of steel and the liberal use of your car's horn, but if you're willing to do it, the drive from Rome to Livorno takes you up the country's west coast and provides some gorgeous views and ideal stopping-off points along the way. Leaving the center of Rome, get on SS1 - also called Via Aurelia - and simply head north. From the SS1 get on the E80/A12 going north and follow the signs for Livorno. From Rome's Fiumicino Airport, take A91 east to the entrance for the E80/A12 and head north. In both cases, you'll find yourself on the Autostrada Azzurra heading towards Livorno. Leave yourself at least four hours for the drive.
Recommendations and Tips
When you travel by train, you'll need to validate your ticket. At the train station, look for the validation boxes located on or near the platforms. If you don't have a validation stamp on your ticket and a conductor happens to ask for it, you'll face a potential fine. If you're driving, the speed limit on Italy's major autostrade, or highways, is usually 110 km/hr, or 68 mph. Finally, when you arrive in Livorno by car, you'll have to park in one of the lots or garages situated outside the city center since the city's historic core is primarily a pedestrian-friendly area.