Types of Non-Flowering Plants


Plants can be divided into two broad categories based on their means of reproduction: flowering plants (spermatophytes) and non-flowering plants (crytogams). Non-flowering plants can, in turn, be sub-divided into five main types. Read on to learn more.


  • These simple plants reproduce by means of spores, and can be found in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. They range from single-celled bacteria to seaweeds.


  • Mosses, also called Bryophytes, do not have roots, but rather use tiny hair-like structures to penetrate the soil. They require a damp environment in order to survive, and reproduce by means of spores.


  • Ferns bear feather-like leaves, which grow above the ground while their stem and roots grow underground. They reproduce by means of spores that grow under their leaves.


  • These are evergreen trees that bear needle-like leaves and reproduce by means of seeds that form inside the conifer's cones.


  • Fungi lack the green pigment chlorophyll, which is used by green plants to convert sunlight into food.

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