In Spanish class, interactive games and activities help students build mnemonic devices and enhance memorization. When learning the future tense, interactive activities will help students speak and write to express future plans with the proper verb conjugations. The future tense is one of the easier tenses to conjugate in Spanish; however, there are a few irregular verbs that students will need to watch out for. Create a fun, interactive learning environment with conversations, flashcards and games involving the future tense.
With the release of Bloom's Taxonomy in 1956, education in America began focusing on the development of students' higher order thinking skills. With the successful use of the higher order thinking skills, unfamiliar problems or dilemmas are solved with explanations or decisions based within the context of previous knowledge. Knowledge you have gained previously used to deduce an answer, think critically, reflect or create, indicates the use of higher order thinking skills.
Gaelic languages are a subgroup of the six languages called Insular Celtic languages, which originated in and around the modern-day British Isles during the 3rd century A.D. The three Gaelic tongues are Scottish Gaelic (Gaidhlig), Irish Gaelic (Gaelige) and Manx Gaelic (Gaelg), which is spoken on the Isle of Mann. The other three Insular Celtic languages are Breton, Cornish and Welsh.
Hieroglyphics is considered a dead language in modern times, but there is still a lot that is known about it. From its history to its evolution to the meanings behind the symbols that make up hieroglpyhics, there is much that can be learned about one of the world's oldest languages. There are three types of hieroglyphs that made up the language: phonograms, logograms and determanitives.
In America, a good command of English as a foreign language can improve your educational prospects significantly. Many universities use band scores from the International English Language Testing System to set a minimum achievement level for overseas candidates. IELTS results are accepted by employers, universities and professional bodies throughout the English-speaking world. IELTS band scores range from 1 (Non user) to 9 (Expert user) and are calculated from the results of listening, reading, writing and speaking tests.
Creole is often considered bad English. However, Creole and standard English have basic similarities. According to University of Vermont language professor Stacey Herbold, Creole "has a majority of its roots in English." Creole languages arose out of circumstances -- such as slavery -- that caused people to find new ways to communicate, and resulted in modifications to standard English.
Developed in Europe several centuries ago, a sonnet is a type of poem that consists of a set number of lines, usually 14, within a fixed rhyme scheme and meter. Many sonnets also have a fixed pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in each line. This pattern is what is referred to as a poem's rhythm. The most well-known type of poetic rhythm is iambic, which is a an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable; iambic meter is easily recognizable in Shakespearean sonnets and plays.
Most people do not speak in the formal style of language used in essays and reports. Instead, they usually adopt an informal tone that isn't as concerned with formal rules, precision and ornate structure. Linguists often call this style of language colloquial language. Some go even further and adopt slang terms that set them apart from mainstream society.
Linguists define vowels by the position of the lips and tongue. The tongue can curve very high, as in "ee" or "ooh" (closed vowels), or it can sit lower in the mouth, as in "ah" (open vowels). Also, the highest point of the tongue can be toward the front of the mouth as in "ee" or "ay" (front vowels), or it can be toward the back of the mouth as in "ooh" or "ah" (back vowels). For every tongue position, your lips can be relaxed or rounded. The cardinal vowels are eight ideal vowels which linguists use to compare the…
While most dead languages fall into disuse with the passage of time, Yiddish continues to occupy a spot in current culture. Yiddish died in the Holocaust with the overwhelming majority of its native speakers, yet like the Jews, it lives on. Due in large part to the Jewish heritage of so many of the 20th century's most famous entertainers, Yiddish words such as "schmuck," "shlep," "maven" and "chutzpah" are now official parts of American English. Study of Yiddish has actually become popular in recent years among Jews and historians, and courses and books on Yiddish are widely available.
The Cyrillic alphabet was invented in the 9th century A.D. by Greek monks St. Cyril and Methodii to create an Old Church Slavonic language for Christian converts in the region that is now Russia. The alphabet has been used to write over 50 different languages in Russia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe. The Cyrillic alphabet is the third official alphabet of the European Union, along with Latin and Greek.
One of the chief causes of erosion is rainfall, and the Fournier Index (FI) is a measure of the erosive power of a climate as expressed in its rainfall. The index is defined as the square of the mean amount of precipitation in the wettest month divided by the overall annual mean of precipitation, making calculation of the FI of any given area a straightforward exercise in math.
American Sign Language (or ASL) is the standard language used by the deaf in North America. It began in 1814 when deaf education was introduced to the United States. Dr. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc learned sign language in London and Paris. Gallaudet returned to the United States with Clerc to found the American Asylum for Deaf-Mutes, which became the American School for the Deaf. ASL is a language just like English French, or Mandarin. There are three kinds of clauses that commonly use "then" in ASL.
No foreign language course would be complete without the dreaded verb conjugations. Surprisingly, learning regular Spanish verbs is far less onerous than most language students might expect. While there is no one guaranteed method that works to teach verb conjugations to every student, these few simple techniques will make this part of your job easier to do and increase the likelihood the students can master this basic aspect of Spanish grammar.
Knowing more than one language can increase your job opportunities and broaden your horizons. Learning a new language takes a lot of practice and commitment. You may have to practice certain words and phrases several times before you know them by heart. Whether you want to learn a new language for business or pleasure, you can use several strategies to improve you ability to learn new languages.
The ability to speak a foreign language can open the door to a new career, enrich a visit to a foreign country, improve memory and boost scores on standardized tests. And there are no disadvantages to knowing a foreign language. Years of research and scores of studies have shown bilingual speakers increase their cognitive abilities and sharpen their academic abilities through their use of two languages.
Regular Latin verbs fall into four conjugations. Verbs in all four conjugations have six tenses, two aspects, six persons and three moods. Most regular non-deponent Latin verbs have both an active and a passive voice. All four conjugations follow similar rules for passive formation using the appropriate internal thematic vowels.
Human language and animal communication are vastly different from one another. Human language is more complex, with many hidden meanings in words and gestures, as well as many different symbols to express different ideas. Animal communication is much more straightforward and simpler than human language. Some fundamental differences separate human language from animal communication.
Learning Spanish in school does not have to be limited to vocabulary lists and verb conjugations. If your school allows extracurricular organizations, form a club for students to practice using the language and learn more about the culture in Spanish-speaking countries. Your group may learn to make a traditional Spanish food dish, go to a Spanish-language movie festival or take salsa dancing lessons. A Spanish club also may provide introductory Spanish lessons for younger students, or tutoring for those needing additional help with their language studies.
Grammar is the study of categories of words, such as nouns and verbs, and how they relate to each other when used in a sentence. People learn grammar implicitly when they learn it without conscious effort. Explicit grammar is acquired consciously as people study grammatical rules and apply them to speech. Learners may acquire language skills using both methods.
The terms "transitive" and "intransitive" are usually used to refer to parts of speech in the study of a language, as in the phrase "transitive verb." However, apart from their use in grammar, these two terms can have a variety of meanings that range from describing motion to explaining a logical relationship between several mathematical symbols.
Tamil is a language spoken in parts of Southern India, Singapore and Sri Lanka. You may think knowing Tamil will give you an advantage to learning the Hindi alphabet, but this may not be the case. Hindi is the primary official language of India, and spoken by more Indians than any other dialect. Learning the Hindi alphabet will help you master the Hindi language, which will allow you to communicate and connect with a wider population of Indian people.
Unlike many other languages, verbs and conjugations in English are simple and easy to use. They use fixed patterns and follow plain structures. When communicating, you basically use three tenses: past, present and future. Although there are more complex tenses, the main ones are the simple present, simple past, simple future and continuous tenses.
The word hieroglyphics means "sacred writing" and comes from the Greek words "hieros," meaning sacred, and "glypho," meaning inscription, according to Omniglot. The earliest hieroglyphics, pictorial representations of events, ideas, names and objects, date back to 3,400 B.C., making it one of the world's oldest writing systems. Hieroglyphics, or glyphs, were divided into phonograms, which represented one or more sounds, and ideograms, which represented ideas or objects, according to Ancient Egypt, Hieroglyphics. This writing system lasted 3,500 years before it disappeared. With a little practice, you can learn how to write hieroglyphics.
As you progress in your studies of the Japanese language -- or "Nihongo" as the language is known in Japanese -- you can speak and write in more complex sentences. Words that join parts of sentences, such as conjunctions, can help you form longer sentences. Conjunctions can either join phrases and sentences together or join two smaller sentence parts, such as in a list of items. However, you can follow a few basic steps to translate conjunctions properly in Japanese.
For many writers, commas are one of the trickiest aspects of proper English grammar. At their most basic level, commas are used to provide clarity in a sentence by separating its parts into distinct components. In most cases, the comma indicates to the reader that a brief verbal pause would be made after a word if it were spoken aloud. While there are countless guidelines for comma usage, sometimes the rules can be broken to make the sentence read more clearly.
Hungarian, known as Magyar, is a language spoken by the 11 million people in Hungary and four to five million outside the country. It is from the Finno-Ugric family of languages and can be extremely difficult for English speakers to learn. It has very few similarities to modern-day European languages. Obtaining proficiency requires extensive study over time; even learning a few basic words for tourist travel takes concentration. Hungarians recognize and appreciate the effort involved and will gladly help you with pronunciation and new vocabulary.
Semantics is simply uncovering the meaning of a word or phrase in a specific language. Although most people think of semantics as related to the linguistic study of natural languages like Spanish or Greek, it can also be used by computer scientists to study programming languages. Semantics has a strong historical association with philosophy because of its ability to make distinctions between meanings based on word order. Different types of languages have different semantic descriptions.
Vietnamese is a challenging language for native English-speakers to learn. Teaching the Vietnamese language to children requires patience, creativity and lots of repetition. Approach teaching Vietnamese to children much as you would any other language: acquire child-appropriate materials in Vietnamese, make it fun and stick with it. Be consistent in your teaching and focus primarily on vocabulary and dialogue, rather than intensive grammar, especially with younger children. Help them understand how Vietnamese may fit into their lives and expose them to Vietnamese language opportunities in the community.
In the world's rainforests, languages grow diverse, mysterious and colorful as lifeforms. Rainforests' linguistic diversity is equal to their biodiversity, with more languages found there than the rest of the world combined. Also like rain forests, many of these languages are endangered. As rainforests are destroyed, so are the ancient cultures that call them home. Studying these languages keeps them alive.
Deciphering scripts, whether cursive writing of your own language or culture or unknown languages of the distant past, is more an art than a science. The scholarly discipline of paleography is concerned with reading ancient writing, but many of the techniques developed for studying obscure ancient texts can help you read any form of handwriting. Most classroom teachers develop their own ad hoc methods to decipher student handwriting.
English has changed a lot in 300 years. The writings of the Founding Fathers almost feel like they were written in a different language--even common factory workers and soldiers it seems spoke (or at least wrote) with an eloquence rarely heard from modern American English speakers. By learning how to speak in an 18th century dialogue, you can challenge yourself and those around you to improve their grammar and diction and bring American English back to its Colonial roots.
Throughout school and even later in life, we are told that English is an incredibly difficult language to learn, and that nearly every rule has an exception. In grammar, pluralization is no exception to the rule of exceptions. Though many nouns take an "-s" or "-es" ending, others take irregular endings. When our language borrows words from foreign languages, it becomes even more apparent. One of the strange plural endings that English has is the "-e" ending, most commonly found in words borrowed from Latin and Greek.
Non-native English speakers often have difficulty pronouncing sounds that don't exist in their first language. Their intonation, the syllables they stress or the ways in which they link words can be so strongly influenced by their mother tongue that it doesn't sound like English. Filipino-accented English has a more musical sound than standard American speech does. Doing an accent reduction exercise at home each day can help make the English words sound clearer.
Spanish and English share many commonalities. Thousands of Spanish words have English cognates or words that are intuitively similar from sharing a common etymology. This is because English takes much of its vocabulary from medieval French, which, like Spanish, evolved out of Latin. However, while both languages are Indo-European, Spanish is a Romance language while English is Germanic. This often leads to confusion while learning Spanish grammar, especially when it comes to the imperfect and subjunctive tenses.
The diaspora that populated the new British colonies in America with a variety of northern Europeans, led many of Scots-Irish decent into the Appalachian region. Armed with a unique dialect affected by Celtic dialects in the United Kingdom, the inhabitants of West Virginia, parts of Pennsylvania, New York, North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee maintain to this day a unique manner of speech that includes several forms of nonverbal messages.
Pig Latin is not a form of Latin, but a linguistic game in English. To speak Pig Latin, you take the first consonant sound in a word and move it to the end of the word, followed by "-ay." Although you might use Pig Latin as a code to prevent people from understanding you, Pig Latin is common enough that it is a fairly simple code to crack. It is safer just to use Pig Latin for fun than to entrust your secrets to it.
Whether you're a teacher, a traveler, or live in a mulitcultural community, not being able to express yourself to the person in front of you can cause frustration. The language barrier between English and Spanish causes problems when speakers of these different languages try to communicate with each other. Since the process of learning a foreign language is long and slow, learning essential vocabulary and structures can be a useful way to pick up the basics.
Hieroglyphics are the ancient picture language most commonly used by the Egyptians. Pictures represent both words and objects as well as letter sounds. Converting names or phrases in English to hieroglyphics is a fun way to experience the ancient script language of the Egyptians and learn more about how languages work. This is an interesting exercise for kids or adults, and can be done by accessing one of the many translators offered online that convert text to hieroglyphics.
Paralanguage is how you say what you're saying; that is, paralanguage is everything in your voice besides the words. While some definitions of paralanguage include other nonverbal cues such as facial expressions and gestures, others include only vocal characteristics in defining paralanguage. When a person speaks, tone of voice, pitch, rhythm, tempo, intensity (loudness), emotional content and vocal segregates such as an "uh-huh" from the speaker or listener are all aspects of paralanguage. It's not what you say, it's how you say it that catches people's attention, and listeners are more likely to believe what your voice is telling them…
The rhythm of speech refers to metrical patterns and features of the human voice. Analysis of rhythm concentrates on both syllables and words. Some key components of rhythmic human speech are stressed and unstressed syllables, the perceived frequency of sound or pitch, the quality of sound or tone and the duration of vowels, consonants and pauses.
American Sign Language, or ASL, uses a complex system of hand and finger movements to represent English words. The movements for the word "rain" in ASL -- like movements for other words in the language -- visually represent the concept through the signer's motions. When you sign the word for rain, your hands and fingers will make movements suggestive of raindrops falling from the sky.
ESL is an acronym for English as a Second Language -- the practice of teaching the English language to a non-native speaker (often as the second language they learn). There are certain dilemmas that will arrive from the teaching of English to a non-native speaker -- these range from the ability of the teacher and the attitude of the student, to the general language differences in terms of grammar and punctuation.
Arabic is a poetic language and a key to understanding the Quran. There are many variations and dialects of Arabic in the Middle East and North Africa, but almost all speakers use standard modern Arabic in written text. Learning Arabic can be difficult, but not impossible. Start by learning the Arabic alphabet, which has 28 basic letters. Once you master the letters, it's not hard to read and write Arabic text.
Arabic is one of the most popular languages in the world, with hundreds of millions of speakers spread across the Middle East, North Africa and beyond. There are many dialects and variations of Arabic, and modern standard Arabic is used most frequently in written text. The Arabic script has 28 basic alphabets. There are several ways to process Arabic text on a computer -- the simplest is with an Arabic keyboard.
Farsi is the language spoken in present-day Iran; some older references still call it "Persian." It is often confused with Arabic, but the languages are not the same. Farsi is written in a unique script and contains complex consonant groupings unfamiliar to most native English speakers. Learning to speak Farsi well can take a considerable period of time. However, you can learn basic vocabulary words and phrases by using phrasebooks, travel guides, or free online lessons. Participating in an online language exchange program with a native Farsi speaker may also be helpful.
Teachers sometimes separate the study of spoken Japanese and written Japanese in language classes. However, you can begin to read Japanese early on in your studies. There are three Japanese alphabets in everyday use. Hiragana is the native Japanese phonetic alphabet with 46 basic characters. Katakana is another native Japanese phonetic alphabet -- also with 46 basic characters -- primarily employed when the Japanese write foreign words or want to emphasize a word. Kanji is the Japanese alphabet derived from Chinese characters and the number of characters is in the thousands. Each kanji character has a meaning and may have…
When you apply for a marriage license, you are required to produce an official copy of your birth certificate. If you were born in a non-English speaking country, your birth certificate is likely in a foreign language. You will need to provide a translation of your birth certificate into English to secure the marriage license. In the United States, any person who is proficient in both the language of the original birth certificate and English may translate the birth certificate.
Although sometimes tiny two-letter words, prepositions are not as insignificant as they might first appear. They connect the different elements of a sentence. Generally, they are combined with other words to form a structure called a prepositional phrase. Such a phrase begins with a preposition which introduces a noun or pronoun (its object). In the sentence, "Flowers are blooming in the garden," the preposition "in" leads to its object "the garden." Prepositions most often answer these questions: where?, when? and how?
Approximately 400 million people speak Spanish, and for about 320 million, it is their native language. It is the official language of 21 countries in the world and it is spoken in 44 countries, making Spanish the world's fourth most widely spoken language behind Chinese, Hindi and English. Spanish is a Romance language, meaning it has Latin roots. The Castillian dialect is the most widely spoken. Once you learn the Spanish alphabet and have a little bit of vocabulary under your belt, you will be ready to write basic sentence structures in Spanish that include a subject, verb and an…
Gaelic refers to the Celtic languages of Ireland and Scotland, usually called Irish and Scots Gaelic respectively. Although the two languages are related, they are not mutually comprehensible. Nevertheless, these two "brother" languages are close enough to be treated together here for the purpose of tracing their shared origins.
Writing a letter in Old English is much like writing a letter in any language. However, one must remember that Old English (aka Anglo-Saxon or Anglish) is a dead language, meaning that very few people aside from certain linguistics, English, and history scholars read or speak the language anymore. One exception could be members of re-enactment groups such as the Society for Creative Anachronism. Therefore, actually writing in Old English is more an academic enterprise, usually for learning the language, than a practical exercise.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language. The field of study includes how speech is uttered, and how it is organised into meaningful words and sentences. It covers the way children learn to talk, and the way languages change and develop over time. Language is the foundation of rational thought, because, through language, we can organize ideas and reason with them. Understanding how language works helps us understand how the brain works; it is a key to human and artificial intelligence.
Sign language is the use of gestures and hand positions that allow hearing-impaired people to communicate. Sign language is not phonetic like other languages, and there is not one universal sign language. Sign language is more regional and is unrelated to the dominant verbal language spoken in the country. For example, while America and the United Kingdom are both Anglophone countries, their sign languages are very different.
Arabic is a challenging language for English speakers to learn. Using a CD allows the student to hear the correct usage and pronunciation of the Arabic words, which is not always clear from a written text. It also allows the student to work at his own pace, stopping and re-starting the CD as needed to review the complexities of Arabic grammar. Using a CD-based language course enables the student to repeat as often as needed the unusual consonant clusters which so often challenge English-speaking students of Arabic.
One of the official languages of India, Hindi is spoken by approximately 182 million people around the world, according to the Ethnologue language report. As well as being the main language of northern India, Hindi is spoken by people in Bangladesh, Nepal and South Africa. Hindi is written with a syllabic alphabet called Devanagari, which means that all consonants have an inherent vowel. As there are some significant differences between the pronunciation of Hindi and English, using sound when learning Hindi will help you to speak the language more fluently.
In American Sign Language, negation can be a complex and confusing concept, but it doesn't have to be. By learning a few simple language concepts, a signer can fluidly incorporate negation, both in saying "no" and in expressing the opposite of concepts in conversation. When using ASL, it is always important to use the correct negation non-manual markers.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language with approximately 36 million speakers around the world, according to the Ethnologue language report. The majority of Malayalam speakers live in the Indian state of Kerala, where it is an official language, but there are also smaller Malayalam-speaking communities in the Laccadive islands and in Singapore. Learning to read Malayalam is a good idea if you intend to travel to Kerala, whether for business or for pleasure. In order to read Malayalam, you need to master the script with which it is written.
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken by about 66 million people worldwide. According to the Ethnologue language report, the majority of Tamil speakers live in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu although there are also smaller communities of Tamil-speakers in Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Singapore. Learning Tamil will be beneficial if you plan to travel to a Tamil-speaking part of Asia. If you need to learn to speak Tamil quickly, there are numerous free resources available on the Internet to help you.
Greek, an Indo-European language, is spoken by approximately 13 million people around the world, according to the Ethnologue language report. As well as being the official language of the European country of Greece, Greek is also spoken to a lesser extent in neighboring countries such as Turkey, Cyprus and Albania. Greek has its own alphabet which is significantly different from the Latin alphabet used to write English. Typing Greek characters on your computer is possible, however, even if you don't have access to a Greek keyboard.
Pali is an extinct language, formerly spoken in India and Myanmar. Today it is used mainly as a literary language for Buddhist scriptures and other spiritual writings. Learning Pali is necessary if you want to be able to read Buddhist scriptures in their original language, or participate in chanting during Buddhist rituals. Pali does not have a unique written alphabet and therefore may be written either in the Latin alphabet that we use to write English, or the Devanagari alphabet which is commonly used to write Hindi. There are a variety of resources available for free online to help you…
To someone not familiar with Asian writing systems these markings can seem both foreign and bewildering. Often, the symbols used in writing these languages are far removed from the traditional Roman alphabet of European nations and are completely indecipherable without training. While each Asian writing system is unique, there are some basic techniques to distinguishing them from one another. Fortunately, knowing how to recognize Asian markings is simply a matter of knowing where to look and what to look for.
There are three types of Latin adjectives: positive, comparative and superlative. In Latin, a positive adjective is the regular form of the adjective. For example, "good," "tall" and "ugly" are all positive adjectives. Comparatives are the adjectival form used to compare one or more nouns, such as "better", "taller" or "uglier." Superlative adjectives denote things that are "the most," or "very." For example, "best," "tallest" and "ugliest" are superlative adjectives. Positive adjectives decline like nouns. There are rules for which form of the adjective can be used with each noun.
When speakers of two different languages meet, there is a need for a bridge between the two tongues. Interpreters act as this bridge, whether through sign language or verbal language. Interpretation differs from translation in that it is performed instantly, whereas translation takes place in writing. Depending on the circumstances, there are different types of interpretation that suit specific needs.
Language is the primary way humans communicate complex information. Language can be written or spoken. However, there can be much ambiguity in terms of how words, phrases and meanings are interpreted. The use of the wrong word or ambiguous phrases can cause problems for businesses, lawyers and in personal relationships. The differences in language interpretation have a powerful unconscious impact in our lives.
Getting rid of an accent can be one of the more challenging aspects of learning a new language. It requires that you reteach your mouth how to make sounds and form words. Often, these are skills that have not be touched since we were small children. Fortunately, learning how to get rid of a Korean accent is simply a matter of knowing what to look for and whom to ask for help. You will be speaking flawless English in no time.
It is one thing to learn a new language. Learning to say 'I love you' in any language can be difficult. It can also be a sentimental feeling for both you and your loved one for many years to come.
As a growing number of universities worldwide, including the Lille School of Management in France and Instituto de Empresa in Spain, offer courses in English, the pressure is mounting to know what many consider the world's common language. English reading and writing skills can be gradually mastered using text books. Learning to speak English, however, can be confusing, since spoken English has distinctive features that don't exist in its written form.
The Japanese female name "Hiroko" can mean "broad-minded child," "tolerant child," "generous child" or even "spacious child" or "abundant child" depending on the kanji in the name. Japanese kanji characters derived from the Chinese writing system; most native Japanese names are written with kanji. Otherwise, you can typically write Japanese names in hiragana, a native Japanese phonetic alphabet. Or you can write a Japanese name like "Hiroko" in katakana, the other native Japanese phonetic alphabet usually reserved for words foreign to the Japanese language. Writing "Hiroko" in katakana can be a stylistic choice or to emphasize the name.
Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world, with over 220 million speakers across the globe. The demand for Arabic speakers in the Western hemisphere is growing, leading to an increased demand for language-learning resources. For those without access to brick-and-mortar Arabic courses, the internet provides a multitude of ways to begin learning this complex language.
Up until the 1990s, the Scots language was banned in schools in Scotland even though, according to Learning and Teaching Scotland, 1.6 million people in the country speak the language. In the past, children were spanked for speaking Scots. Today, however, Scotland is embracing its ancient heritage, and the Scottish language has become part of the new school curriculum. Organizations, such as Curriculum for Excellence, which offers an educational outline for Scottish students ages 3 to 18, are developing educational tools that teachers can use to teach Scots in the classroom. Teachers and students have discovered that learning Scots is…
Chinese dictionaries are organized in a different way than English dictionaries. This is because Chinese characters don't include phonetic information like English words. As a result, it can be difficult to find a character's entry in a dictionary. Chinese dictionaries often include a radical index. A radical index organizes every Chinese character according the radical and number of strokes used to create them. If you do not know the pronunciation of a Chinese character, you must learn to use a radical index to find its meaning.
As the world becomes more diverse, there is high demand for proficiency in Spanish. Spanish is one of the easier world languages to learn, so it is a fairly easy language to learn for English speakers. After becoming acquainted with numbers, greetings and basic vocabulary, it is necessary to learn the present tense. This is the first tense that Spanish students learn and it can be acquired without headaches.
Learning the Arabic language is challenging for most English speakers. Arabic is the language commonly spoken in many of the countries in the Middle East. While the basic language is consistent throughout the region, there are specific dialects in several of the major Arabic-speaking countries, including Kuwait. Study the basics of Arabic through college courses or online programs, then hire a tutor or participate in a language exchange with a native Kuwaiti to learn the specific version of Arabic spoken in Kuwait.
The terms A.M. and P.M. are used with the 12-hour clock to define whether a time is in the morning or the afternoon/evening.
The name Dinka means "people." The Dinka live in the Bahr el Ghazal region of the Nile basin, Jonglei and parts of southern Kordufan and Upper Nile regions. They are one of sub-Saharan Africa's oldest peoples, and are the largest ethnic group in southern Sudan. Dinka is one of the major languages of southern Sudan, with more than 4.5 million people who speak it. It is spoken by refugees in Australia, Britain, Canada, Egypt, the Netherlands and the United States.
Sign language lacks many of the subtleties of spoken language, as vocal qualities such as tone and pronunciation are harder to discern. Pluralizing nouns in American Sign Language can be accomplished through several means and there is not an official rule regarding how to do it. If you need to make something plural in a sentence, use whichever method seems most comfortable to both you and the person to whom you are speaking. You may find that certain groups of people prefer one method over another.
Learning Russian may seem daunting to speakers of non-Slavic languages. But as with most things, the Russian language becomes less intimidating once it's been demystified. While common practice has been strict studying and memorization, new theories, such as those put forward on the site All Japanese All the Time, have begun to emerge that say immersion and fun are the best way to absorb a language. Integrate the language into your daily life and mastery will surely come.
Slang is the redefining of a word or phrase based on current cultural associations of the concept. The term "Back in the saddle" literally references riding a horse, but the culturally-relevant slang definition indicate a person's drive to reach a goal.
Russian is a Slavic language with approximately 144 million speakers around the world. It also is spoken as a first or second language by millions of people throughout eastern Europe. Russian is written with a Cyrillic alphabet, which is named after the missionary St. Cyril, and has been in use since the 10th century. It contains a mixture of letters from the Greek and Latin alphabets. To be able to write Russian words, you first need to master this alphabet.
Hungarian is a Uralic language spoken by about 13 million people around the world. The official language of Hungary, Hungarian also is spoken by smaller communities in the neighboring countries of Romania, Slovakia and Serbia. Hungarian is not related to any other major European language, and beginners will find the vocabulary and grammar significantly different from anything they have learned before.
Greek is an Indo-European language spoken throughout Greece and many other countries, including Turkey and Cyprus. According to the Ethnologue language report, there are 13 million speakers of Greek worldwide. Greek uses a unique alphabet that first was developed around 750 B.C. and was the first alphabet in the world to include vowels. There are differences between the ancient Greek alphabet, used to write classical Greek texts, and the modern Greek alphabet that Greek people use to express their language today. If you are learning to speak Greek and intend to travel to Greece, it is this second alphabet that…
If you have ever traveled out of the country, you probably noticed a multitude of differences between the place you were visiting and what you are used to. Different cultures have their own rules about driving, etiquette, food and more. While some differences are immediately apparent, there are other, more subtle differences you may not even think about until you are face to face with them. One such thing is the format in which mailing addresses are written. While the new layout and foreign abbreviations may appear confusing, there are a set of rules to follow to make sure your…
America is a country of immigrants, and these families who came to the United States from elsewhere brought their food, humor, culture and language with them. American English is full of influences from Spain, the Yiddish language, French and Italian, just to name a few. As we continue to welcome new Americans from other countries, we will continue to enjoy the richness these immigrants bring to our society and our language.
Vietnamese, an Austro-Asiatic language with about 69 million speakers, is the official language of Vietnam. It is also spoken by a small number of people in neighboring countries, such as Cambodia and China. If you have Vietnamese family and friends or are planning a vacation in Vietnam, it could be very rewarding for your child to learn to speak Vietnamese. There is range of resources available on the Internet to help children learn Vietnamese.
Ancient Greek is the name of the language that was spoken in the European country of Greece during the classical period. Ancient Greek differs significantly from the modern Greek language spoken in Greece today, and will not help you to communicate with Greek people if you spend a vacation in Greece. Many academics and scholars continue to study Ancient Greek, however, so that they can read the many books, plays and philosophical texts that were originally written in the language. If you are interested in learning Ancient Greek, it is possible to do so using online tools and resources.
Russian, a Slavic language used throughout Russia, has approximately 144 million speakers, according to the Ethnologue language report. As well as being the official language of Russia, Russian is spoken and understood in a variety of other Eastern European and Asian countries, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Russian is written with its own alphabet, commonly known as the Cyrillic alphabet, which is quite different to the alphabet we use to write English. To say the word "moon" in Russian, you need to use four of these letters.
The Georgian language uses an alphabet called the Mkhedruli alphabet. This alphabet does not have capital letters and it is written, like the English alphabet, from the left to the right. The order of the letters in the Mkhedruli alphabet follow that of the Greek alphabet; however, it includes some consonants that do not have corresponding Greek letters; these appear at the end of the alphabet. There are 33 letters in the alphabet and anyone who is interested can learn them with some effort, practice and patience.
It might seem impossible to learn how to communicate in Morse code. To the untrained ear, this outmoded form of telecommunication can sound like nothing but random "dits" and "dahs." To those trained in Morse code, however, these "dits" and "dahs" communicate letters, numerals, punctuation marks, words and sentences. Although today Morse code has largely been abandoned as a mode of communication, it continues to be used by ham radio enthusiasts and hobbyists.
Effectively learning any foreign language depends on mastering the basics first, then building up to full sentences--one typically cannot start from nothing and successfully jump straight into learning sentences. This is particularly true in Russian, which uses a different alphabet from English, has numerous unusual consonant combinations and grammar that typically poses a challenge to English speakers. You can learn to say simple phrases commonly used by tourists without learning the Russian language itself, but otherwise learning sentences in any meaningful way requires studying more than just a phrasebook.
It can be difficult to live in an area where you don't speak the local language. While language courses can often be expensive, there are multiple free options for learning a new language, including English. In Irvine, California, local resources are available, as well as Internet options that can be accessed from anywhere in the world. It may be a good idea to utilize more than one free language learning resource in order to gain a broader understanding.
If you speak Japanese, or even know only a little of the language and want to practice more, you'll be happy to know you don't need a different keyboard, computer or operating system to type and read Japanese on your computer. you can install and change between language input methods. This means a regular QWERTY keyboard can be used to type a variety of languages. A few mouse clicks is all it takes to set up your computer to type Japanese.
As early as 2005, the "Christian Science Monitor" described Chinese as a "hot" language to study. More and more students are learning Chinese in the United States, from elementary school through university. Chinese language instruction is available in schools and colleges, through self-study courses and on the Internet. Although study of Chinese has numerous advantages, the language presents particular difficulties for Anglophones compared to other foreign languages.
Learning the past tense in Spanish is a minor challenge for beginning Spanish speakers, but can be successfully accomplished through the use of good materials, memorization of a few key rules and regular practice. There are several forms of the past tense in Spanish, but the most basic form is called the preterite, or simple past tense. Attend beginning Spanish classes, hire a Spanish-language tutor or use Spanish grammar texts, online tools and written practice to learn this simple past tense verb form. This will help you learn the correct endings and when to use the simple past.
A "linking verb," also called a "copula," is used to link the subject of a sentence to its predicate. Copulas exist in many languages, including English. A "being verb" or "action verb" is a verb that expresses action without linking the subject of a sentence to its predicate. The difference between these two types of verbs can be tricky to comprehend at first, but there are a few simple rules that make the distinction clear. Keep in mind that the same word can act as a copula or an action verb in different contexts.
Dutch is a language from the Germanic family and shares some vocabulary with both German and English. However, pronouncing the language correctly is a considerable challenge to many English speakers because there are letter combinations and gutteral sounds not commonly used in spoken English. Using audio recordings is a potentially successful way to learn correct Dutch pronunciation as long as the recordings use native Dutch speakers and logical approaches to learning the grammar. Combining the use of audio with exposure to native speakers through a class or language exchange is preferable, and considerably more successful, than using audiotapes alone.
Polish is a western Slavonic language that is spoken by about 40 million people around the world, according to the Ethnologue language report. The official language of Poland, Polish speakers can also be found in neighboring countries such as the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. If you are planning to travel to Poland, whether for business or for a vacation, it is a good idea to learn some simple Polish to help you communicate with local people. A simple command of Polish can also help you to impress Polish-speaking family and friends.
German is one of the world's major languages, spoken by approximately 90 million people, according to the Ethnologue language report. German is an official language in the European countries of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, but you may also hear it spoken in Luxembourg, Belgium and Poland. As German belongs to the same family of languages as English, beginners may recognize some similarities in the basic vocabulary and grammar. Learning to speak numbers in German is a good introduction to the language and will prove useful when traveling in German-speaking Europe.
Greek is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 13 million people worldwide, according to the Ethnologue language report. The majority of Greek speakers live in the European country of Greece, although you will also find smaller Greek-speaking communities in Cyprus, Turkey and Albania. Childhood is a great time to learn a language, as children's brains are very receptive to new words and ideas. Learning to speak Greek will enable children to enjoy a vacation in Greece or communicate more freely with Greek-speaking family and friends. It is possible to teach children to speak Greek using online tools and resources.
Japanese kanji characters constitute one of three main elements of the Japanese writing system. The other two elements are the syllabic scripts hiragana and katakana. "Kanji" means "Chinese characters," and were introduced to Japan from China in the fifth century. To understand the meanings of kanji in depth, you need to understand the evolution of kanji in Japan, the compositional elements of kanji, and how to use a Japanese dictionary.