What Is Job Specialization & Job Evaluation?

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Human resources processes tend to be complicated when entering the realm of determining a job function and related salary ranges. Two of these approaches include job specialization and job evaluation, both of which require updated analysis and research to support related conclusions.

Job Evaluation Defined

Job evaluation describes the process of defining a job position salary cost relative to the employer organization, industry, and location. The result of this work and analysis tends to be determining pay ranges for job classifications to remain competitive but to also control labor costs as well. Whether formal or not, every company and organization that pays people to work goes through the process of job evaluation, particularly when establishing the pay levels of new positions.

Method Utilization

The formalized approach of job evaluation tends to be used and discarded as the balance between centralized control and flexibility moves back and forth. Organizational management will affect it when processes are needed to keep decentralized areas in line. Formal evaluation gets thrown out when a company wants to be flexible and nimble to move quickly in business.

Job Specialization Defined

The method of job specialization involves breaking down a task to its lowest level and designing jobs around each part. This creates specialization, expertise, and improved quality. Job specialization design in the workplace is frequently seen in manufacturing and assembly lines where a worker focuses on one specific task and ability during the entire work shift. The task frequently repeats all day long.

Benefits

Because job specialization allows significant expertise buildup in a specific task, the learning and speed of production happen faster. The job does not involve complex processes, so it can be taught faster to new workers. In theory, this approach reduces quality control costs and improves production efficiency.

Problems

The downside of job specialization tends to be that people can only do one task. They aren’t trained to multitask or handle multiple areas of a workplace. As a result, when a critical expertise is lost, the process can suffer. Additionally, workers under job specialization don’t have a wide array of applicable skills, so it becomes hard for them to adapt to a new function or need in the organization. As a result, unemployment is a significant problem when a company has to shut down a factory or assembly line. Many of the laid-off workers usually have a hard time adjusting to new occupations.

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