The human body carries out a multitude of processes to maintain overall health, growth and life. To do this, cells work on a continual basis and over time may wear out or become damaged. The body produces new cells as a means for sustaining the tissues, organs and blood vessels that work to keep the body functioning.
Cell cycles involve all the varied processes required for cell growth, everyday functions and the creation of new cells. According to West Virginia University, certain areas of the body, such as the scalp, the blood, the bones and epithelial linings are programmed to regularly manufacture new cells. These areas carry out cell divisions processes to replace old cells and to ensure new cells are available in the event that older cells die off, according to Nature Education.
Mitosis is the process in which existing cells manufacture new ones. An adult produces millions of new cells each second to maintain the needed balance of cells in the body, according to the Oracle Education Foundation's ThinkQuest, an online learning platform. Mitosis processes involves the replication and transfer of a cell’s genetic and physical material into the making of a daughter cell. To do this, cells go through a series of stages that results in its splitting in two to form identical structures.
According to West Virginia University, the phases involved in manufacturing new cells require communication between different systems in the body. The cells themselves manufacture the needed proteins and enzyme materials, while the immune system and hormonal secretions also contribute to mitosis processes. The making of new cells requires a certain amount of space to be available for new cells to fill. In some cases, the old cells that die off become nourishment for newly formed structures.
Areas of the body affected by damage or injury rely on the reproductive ability of cells to restore normal function, according to West Virginia University. In cases of infection, hemorrhaging, shock or old age, the overall health of the body may determine how efficiently cell regeneration processes take place. Tissue regeneration can occur when damage to bone, connective tissue and stomach or blood vessel linings develop. Certain organs such as the liver are also capable of regenerating damaged tissue through the manufacture of new cells.
According to West Virginia University, areas of the body that produce new cells regularly are typically more capable of regenerating new tissue when an injury does occur than areas where cell regeneration doesn’t take place. In some cases, an area of damage like a bone joint may require a coordinated effort where more than one type of cell is needed to restore the area to normal. Repair processes may also require regeneration in the cells that make up attached muscle, nerve fiber and connective tissues.