How is Fruit Formed in Plants?

Save

Fruit is an old French word that is derived from the Latin root, fructus, which roughly means a profit or income. To most people today, fruits are edible produce that we buy in the grocery store, but to a botanists the word has a slightly narrower meaning. In scientific terms, a fruit is the seed-bearing part of the plant that is formed after fertilization occurs.

Flower Development

  • Before a fruit can be formed, the flowers must bloom so the male and female parts can develop and produce pollen and receptive ovules. Within the flower, pollen is produced in the stamens, while the female ovules form inside a pistil. In most cases the male stamens and female pistil occur within the same flower, but there are times where flowers with develop into male or female units.

Pollination

  • Once the flowers open, a mechanism is needed to transport the pollen from the stamen to the pistil. In most flowering plants the pollen must travel to a different plant of the same species in order for fertilization to occur. This process is called cross-fertilization and it ensures that the genetic offspring are not completely identical to the parent. Insects and the wind are the two most common means of transporting pollen to another plant, but flowers can also be pollinated by bats, birds, spiders, butterflies, moths or water. Self-pollination is rare but does occur in a few plants.

Fertilization

  • Once the pollen arrives at the top of the pistil, where the stigma is located, it needs to travel down the pollen tube to the base of the pistil, where it can find a receptive ovule; this is the female genetic material found inside the ovary. Once the pollen finds the ovule, the male and female genetic material combines to form an embryo, which will eventually develop into a seed.

Seed Growth

  • Once the embryo is formed, the cells of the embryo will start to grow in a normal method. After the embryo grows beyond its two-cell stage it is referred to a zygote. As time goes on the zygote will grow larger. Eventually cell differentiation begins and the zygote will begin to change into a seed.

Fruit Development

  • Once the zygote starts to grow, the ovary will begin developing into a fruit and the ovules will begin to form seeds.. The outside wall of the ovary and pistil becomes the skin of the fruit, or in some cases like the apple and pear, there develops a fleshy and edible material outside the ovary wall which will become the edible part of the fruit. This fleshy material is then covered by an outer covering that is derived from the petals, sepals and bracts. In either case the fruit will grow as long as the plant does, but eventually it will fall from the tree when the plant goes dormant for the winter.

References

Promoted By Zergnet

Comments

You May Also Like

  • Why Spray Fruit Trees With Water Before a Freeze

    Frost at the wrong time in the spring can devastate certain crops. Tree fruits, citrus and strawberries are particularly vulnerable. Tree fruits...

  • Berry-Like Fruit Tree Identification

    Although many trees, including some conifers, produce berry-like fruits, there is some scientific nomenclature that describes a true berry. To a botanist...

  • How to Make Fruit Cobbler

    Cobbler is a baked fruit dessert and is so named because of the "cobbled" look of the topping. Like a pie, it...

  • How to Get Rid of Fruit Flies

    Late summer and early fall are the height of harvest for most gardens and backyard orchards, but the bounty of fruit and...

  • How to Preserve Fruit

    An over-abundance of fruit, from spring rhubarb to June strawberries to fall apples, provides many opportunities to preserve fruit in one of...

  • How to Make a Filipino Fruit Salad

    A traditional Filipino fruit salad contains a mix of seasonal fresh fruits. Sliced pineapples, mangoes and bananas keep with a tropical theme,...

  • How to Make Marzipan Fruit

    Marzipan, made up of sugar and mashed almonds, is one of the most unique gourmet sweets and very popular inside chocolate and...

  • How to Save Fruit and Vegetable Seeds

    Most experienced gardeners save seeds from their annual crops. If you have an heirloom variety of a particular fruit or vegetable, it...

  • How to Grow Dragon Fruit

    Flaunting 1-foot night-blooming flowers, dragon fruit plants (Hylocereus and Selenicereus spp.) more closely resemble the princess in a fairy tale than the...

  • How to Grow a Swan Plant

    The swan plant is a form of milkweed, which is the plant on which monarch butterflies feed, live and reproduce. If you...

Related Searches

Check It Out

How to Build and Grow a Salad Garden On Your Balcony

M
Is DIY in your DNA? Become part of our maker community.
Submit Your Work!