Music is a vital facet of Haitian culture. In Haiti's special, cultural case, the people's music is an amalgamation of styles. It reflects both African Vodoun music and the sounds of Western and Catholic influence.
According to National Geographic World Music, the Republic of Haiti was founded in 1804 after Haitians revolted against slavery. The music took shape in such a way that the drumming, dancing and vocal styles revealed the Haitians' African roots. These roots were deeply embedded in the Vodoun religion.
Vodoun, according to The Mystic, is a religion steeped in the concept of spirit possession. Vodoun uses music in ritual, and this facet is found in Haitian music today.
Haitian music became more secular as the country's government rid itself of its voodoo image. Catholicism was growing in Haiti, and so was Western influence. This lead to the playing of blues, jazz and French music in order to please patrons and visitors, according to National Geographic World Music.
The jazz, blues and African drumming and song fused to create Haitian music. In the mid-1940s, according to Heritage Konpa, jazz des jeunes became the most recognized music in Haiti. This dance music was the most popular in the country at the time and is still popular today.
According to Heritage Kompa, in the 1950s Nemours Jean Baptiste and Weber Sicot changed Haitian music. They invented Compas music, which used electric instruments such as the electric guitar. It was lively music, usually accompanied by vocals, and also relied on a horn section.
Compas is also known as "kompa," "kompas," "compas direct" or "konpa direct."
Today, Konpa music is still alive. However, it has changed. According to Heritage Konpa, the music places less emphasis on real instruments. The musicians today prefer to use keyboard sounds rather than real drums. Guitars are used, but the horn sections have been replaced by synthetic instruments.
According to National Geographic World Music, today's music in Haiti is influenced by the Western world's soul, funk and rap. Konpa is still very much a part of musical culture, though it is often fused with other forms of modern music.
There is no music industry in Haiti, according to Heritage Konpa. There are very few producers and no real record labels.