Many sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) cause symptoms in or around the mouth, including warts, blisters, fungal growths and other effects. There is no way to know how an individual will experience an STD and which symptoms she will develop; some people do not experience any symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. People who believe they have been exposed to an STD should be tested to confirm diagnosis and to receive appropriate treatment.
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
Oral infections of both chlamydia and gonorrhea can lead to sore throat. However, most oral infections of gonorrhea cause no symptoms, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and chlamydia is also often asymptomatic.
Both cold sores, caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), can cause symptoms in the mouth. However, oral involvement of herpes is more commonly caused by HSV-1, and these sores typically appear on the lips or surrounding facial area, not within the mouth itself. When they do occur within the mouth, herpes blisters appear on the gums and on the hard palate, according to the Mayo Clinic. Itching, burning or tingling is felt in the area affected by an outbreak, followed by a red rash and blisters. These blisters contain fluid that forms a crust when the blisters breaks open, all of which occurs between seven and 10 days after the development of symptoms.
Syphilis causes one sore (called the chancre) near where the infection entered the body during its first stage, which can include the mouth. Oral sores or sores in the throat can also develop in following stages; these sores may not be obvious, but can still lead to infection in others, accordind to the CDC.
Advanced HIV disease can cause a number of symptoms in the mouth. These include: fungal infections that cause lesions or ulcerations, including candidiasis, histoplasmosis and Cryptococcus neoformans; blisters from herpes simplex viruses, which are opportunistic in HIV, as well as other herpetic conditions like shingles and oral hairy leukoplakia (white masses caused by the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr); periodontal disease, which can lead to the loss of both hard and soft tissues of the mouth; and cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (which causes dark oral lesions) and lymphoma, which can lead to ulcers.
Testing and Treatment
People who believe they have been exposed to an STD should be tested in order to confirm diagnosis and to receive appropriate treatment. Home remedies should not be used in the treatment of STD symptoms, as they may have no effect on symptoms and delay healing. The entirety of a prescription given for an STD should be taken, even if symptoms clear up before the medication runs out.