Body Parts & Functions

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The human body is the entire structure of the human organism and its main parts are: head, neck, trunk and limbs. Each part has different functions and contains different organs.Whether we are walking, talking, sleeping, playing or sitting, our body is constantly working hard to keep us in full health. It is important to know our body in order to take care of it and live a long healthy life.

A runner takes her mark before a race.
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The human head is the upper extremity of the body, connected by the neck to the trunk. It has an oval shape and it hosts the brain. On the front part called face, the head contains four sense organs: nose, eyes, ears and mouth. They all send sensation messages to the brain: the nose sends smells, the eyes send images, the ears send sounds and the mouth sends tastes. The skin that covers the entire human body is the fifth sense organ and sends tactile messages to the brain. With the help of the skin we can feel. The nose is also part of the breathing system that gets the air inside the body.

A close up of a mans face.
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The brain is the most important organ of our body. It is a jelly-like substance located inside the head. It is protected by a fluid and the skull (the bone part of the head). With the help of our brain we can survive (through automatic processes like breathing), think, love, create and remember. The brain is connected to the entire body through nerves, composing together the nervous system and making other body organs act. For example: when we see an object coming fast towards us, the eyes send the image to the brain. After the information is processed, the brain sends commands through the nerves to our muscles, making our body dodge.

A man gets a CAT scan in a hospital.
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The neck is the body part that connects the head to the trunk. It also sustains the head and helps it move up and down, left and right. Another important function of the neck is protecting the nerves that send sensory and motor information from the brain to the rest of the body.

A close up of a woman's neck.
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The trunk is the body part that connects all the other parts and hosts many important internal organs such as: heart, lungs, stomach, liver, kidneys and reproductive organs. The heart is considered to be the motor of the human body. It beats constantly and pumps the blood to the entire body, distributing oxygen and nutrients needed to survive. The lungs help us breathe, while the stomach breaks down the food and absorbs substances.

A man flexes his chest and arms.
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A human being has four limbs: two arms and two legs. The arms are the upper limbs, connected to the trunk in the superior side, one on the left and one on the right. The arm consists of: shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, palm and fingers. With the help of our arms we can catch, hold and carry objects. The legs are connected to the trunk in the inferior side. The leg consists of: hip, thigh, knee, ankle, foot and toes. With the help of our legs we can walk, run and jump. The legs sustain the entire weight of the body and carry it where it needs to go.

A woman climbs a rock face.
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