What Is the Structural Formula of 1-Pentene?

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1-Pentene is a straight-chain alkene. An alkene, or olefin, is an aliphatic hydrocarbon that contains carbon-to-carbon double bonds. 1-Pentene contains five carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms, with a single carbon-to-carbon double bond between the first and second carbon atoms.

Identification

  • 1-Pentene can also be referred to as pentene, propylethylene, alpha-n-amylene, and 1-methyl-2-butene. The chemical abstracts registry number (CAS #) is 109-67-1. The structural formula is CH2-CH-CH2-CH2-CH3.

Naming

  • The prefix "pent" refers to the five carbon atoms in the molecule. The suffix "ene" indicates the presence of a double bond in the molecular structure. The number 1 indicates the position of the double bond along the carbon chain.1-pentene, along with 2-pentene, is a structural isomer of pentene. Geometrical isomers of pentene include cis-2-pentene and trans-2-pentene.

Double Bonds

  • The carbons in the molecular structure that are involved in the double bond are sp2 hybridized, meaning they have three equivalent hybrid orbitals in the same plane, 120 degrees from each other. This hybridized orbital consists of both a sigma bond and a pi bond between the double-bonded carbons.

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • 1-Pentene is is an extremely flammable, colorless liquid with a slightly pungent odor having a molecular weight of 70.14 g/mol. The boiling point is 30.1 degrees celsius, and the melting point is -165 degrees celsius, with a specific gravity of 0.643 at 20 degrees celsius. The flashpoint and boiling point temperatures are -18 and 86 degrees celsius respectively. 1-pentene is insoluble in water but soluble in benzene, ethers and alcohols.

Applications

  • Pentenes are used as chemical intermediates and alkylated for use in automotive fuels. 1-Pentene is a volatile organic compund (VOC) released into the environment via its production and used as a chemical intermediate and in petroleum spills.

References

  • Photo Credit M. Tweedie
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