Welding is the process of joining two or more objects by using high levels of heat. A filler material, similar to solder, is added to form a molten liquid substance at the area where the two objects meet. This area is called a joint, or weld joint. When the heat is removed, the metal quickly cools to form a solid bond. Welding is used in construction, manufacturing and industrial applications to join items such as iron or steel.
A butt joint is the simplest type of welded joint. It is used to join two objects that rest on the same plane. The joint between the two objects may consist of two square edges, a V-shape or a U-shape. This profile is dependent upon the materials being welded, and may also be impacted by the intended application of these materials. All butt joints can consist of a single or double weld, with single welds being the most cost-effective.
Corner Joint Welds
A corner joint weld is used to join two objects at a 90 degree angle. The objects are arranged so that they only touch along one edge. This leaves a V-shaped groove that must be filled with a welding filler material. Using this V-groove allows for a much stronger bond, and also allows the welder to join the objects with a single action. If the objects were arranged without the V-groove, it would require two separate welds (along the top and bottom) and would not be as strong.
An edge joint is similar to a butt joint, but is used along the edges of two vertical objects. For example, this joint is commonly used to create a double-layered steel plate. The plates are stacked directly on top of one another, and at least one edge is welded using an edge weld. For added strength, two or more edges of the objects may be welded.
Lap joints are used on two overlapping items that do not lie directly on top of one another. Because only a small portion of the objects may overlap, an edge lap will not be sufficient. Instead, the joints where the edge of one object meets the face of another is welded. For instance, picture a staircase, with the stairs representing a series of metal objects. A lap joint would be placed at the intersection where each vertical riser meets the adjacent stair tread.
T-welds are used to join two objects at a right angle to one another to form a T-shape. A simple example of this would be a single metal rafter suspended from a ceiling. The weld would be placed at one of both sides of the rafter at the joint where it meets the steel roof deck. If a metal object were placed at the top of the roof deck to form a cross-shaped formation, the resulting welds would be known as a cruciform joint.
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