Head nerve damage affects much more than the head. The amount of impairment to the nerves in the brain depends on age, cause and effect of damage such as if trauma was involved, damage done to the body because of the nerve damage in the head and the ability of the person to be rehabilitated if he has problems and pain with movement in areas of the body. There are some common symptoms of head nerve damage which have been reported and studied.
Optical Nerve Damage
The optical nerve is commonly involved in head nerve damage. Damage to the optical nerves creates problems with vision, concentration, memory loss, loss of sensation in the body, blurred vision, trouble with routine and everyday activities, clumsiness, physical coordination, distinguishing between colors, associating objects with their use, controlling your body movements, dizziness, shivers, and the sensation of “pins and needles” on the skin.
Oculomotor Nerve Palsy
Oculomotor Nerve Palsy usually follows optical nerve damage. At this point, the patient is unable to control his eye movements. The eye is usually kept in a downward position. Drooping of the eyelid—even to the point that the eye seems closed—and eye dilation are common with this palsy. The pupil also has trouble changing in expanding and decreasing in size when presented with heavy light or total darkness.
Closed or Open Injury
Closed head injuries occur when the head is met by an oncoming blow or force, causing the brain to collide against the skull. The damage done to brain and nerves usually presents itself immediately. Closed head injuries results in nerve damage in the brain and presents problems such as vision loss or impairment, dilated pupils, loss of consciousness, respiratory issues, dizziness, headaches, nausea and vomiting, speech and language impairment, emotional and behavioral problems, and cerebrospinal fluid leaking from nose or ears. On the other hand, open brain injuries are focal, meaning that they are specific to one area of the brain and the nerves settled there. They occur when something penetrates past the skull and into the brain. Possible causes of nerve and brain injury may be a high-velocity injury such as a gunshot or a low-velocity injury by something like a knife or other weapon. Skull fractures often lead to open brain injuries because when the skill fractures, a piece of it may become lodged in a certain area of the brain.
Cranial Nerve Injury
Cranial nerves run from the base of the brain into different parts of the brain and may be impaired if a brain injury occurs. Symptoms of cranial nerve injury include impaired sensation of smell, vision, movement of the eyes and eyelids, parasympathetic control of pupil size, movement of eyes, sensation of touch to the face, movement of muscles for chewing, movement of muscles of facial expression, sensation of taste in anterior two-thirds of the tongue, sensation of hearing and balance. Other impairments are movement of muscles in the throat, control of the salivary glands, sensation of taste in posterior one-third of the tongue, detection of blood pressure changes in the aorta, parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and abdominal organs, movement of muscles in the throat and neck, and the movement of the tongue.
Brain nerve injuries are one of the most serious and dangerous medical problems. Rehabilitation is possible in some cases, but not all. If the trauma is too invasive, the brain nerve injury will probably be lifelong.